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Table 4 Pre-Analysis (Step 1)—Univariate associations with success in multi-modal pain therapy (binary logistic regressions)

From: Searching for success: Development of a combined patient-reported-outcome (“PRO”) criterion for operationalizing success in multi-modal pain therapy

  Regression Coefficient β Standard error Wald df p OR 95 % Confidence Interval for OR
Lower Value Upper Value
Age −.016 .010 2.755 1 .097 0.984 0.966 1.003
Sex −.229 .237 0.933 1 .334 0.795 0.500 1.266
Living situation −.161 .280 0.331 1 .565 0.851 0.492 1.473
School education .408 .231 3.122 1 .077 1.504 0.956 2.365
Employment .145 .217 0.444 1 .505 1.156 0.755 1.769
Number of affected pain regions .001 .014 0.011 1 .918 1.001 0.974 1.029
Localization of primary pain:         
head .180 .289 0.387 1 .534 1.197 0.679 2.111
upper body −.286 .217 1.738 1 .187 0.751 0.491 1.149
lower body −.103 .234 0.194 1 .660 0.902 0.571 1.427
joints .571 .377 2.288 1 .130 1.769 0.845 3.706
whole body .063 .350 0.032 1 .858 1.065 0.536 2.113
Pain perception affective (SES) .028 .012 5.842 1 .016 1.029 1.005 1.053
Pain perception sensory (SES) .001 .015 0.006 1 .936 1.001 0.972 1.031
Frequency of primary pain −.192 .238 0.655 1 .418 0.825 0.518 1.314
Average pain severity in the last 4 weeks .289 .063 20.695 1 <.001 1.335 1.179 1.511
Highest pain severity in the last 4 weeks .359 .083 18.456 1 <.001 1.431 1.215 1.686
Lowest pain severity in the last 4 weeks .126 .045 7.828 1 .005 1.134 1.038 1.239
Actual pain severity .133 .045 8.830 1 .003 1.143 1.046 1.248
Acceptable pain severity after treatment .023 .062 0.137 1 .712 1.023 0.906 1.156
Persuasibility of pain .276 .252 1.200 1 .273 1.318 0.804 2.160
Number of symptoms accompanying pain .002 .047 0.003 1 .959 1.002 0.914 1.099
Number of psychic comorbidities .142 .150 0.898 1 .343 1.153 0.859 1.547
Park-Indexa .273 .190 2.068 1 .150 1.314 0.906 1.905
Disability due to Pain (PDI) .348 .066 28.218 1 <.001 1.417 1.246 1.611
Depressiveness (ADS) .029 .010 8.387 1 .004 1.029 1.009 1.049
Physical-health-related quality of life (SF-36) −.021 .014 2.095 1 .148 0.980 0.953 1.007
Mental-health-related quality of life (SF-36) −.025 .009 7.413 1 .006 0.976 0.959 0.993
Number of personal physician switches .060 .056 1.162 1 .281 1.062 0.952 1.184
Number of pain-associated physician visits in the last six months −.023 .012 3.657 1 .056 0.977 0.954 1.001
Number of pain-related other treatments in the last 6 months −.003 .007 0.200 1 .655 0.997 0.982 1.011
Number of doctors involved because of pain −.010 .025 0.151 1 .698 0.990 0.943 1.040
Number of pain-associated hospital visits −.026 .056 0.222 1 .638 0.974 0.873 1.087
Number of pain-associated rehabilitations .027 .071 0.146 1 .702 1.027 0.894 1.180
Retirement request pending −.008 .595 0.000 1 .989 0.992 0.309 3.183
Current retirement payment −.108 .292 0.138 1 .710 0.897 0.507 1.589
Disability request pending .292 .216 1.821 1 .177 1.339 0.876 2.047
Work accident as reason for pain condition −.083 .422 0.038 1 .845 0.921 0.402 2.107
  1. aconsists of Alcohol use disorders, Nicotine Dependence, Mood disorders, Anxiety disorders, Psychotic Disorders, Sleep disturbances: sum index with range of 0 to 6
  2. Bold: significant at a level of p < .05 or at a level of p ≤ .10