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Table 1 Summary of study designs and interventions

From: The impact of interventions on appointment and clinical outcomes for individuals with diabetes: a systematic review

Author Diabetes type Study population Methodology Intervention
1 Anderson et al. 2003 [15] 98.5 % of intervention group patients are Type 2; 100 % of control group patients are Type 2 n I  = 67, n C  = 65; African Americans; Patients with normal or mild eye exam; Detroit metropolitan area; United States (US). Randomized Control Trial (RCT); Measurement: 12 months (mos). Letter and phone reminder
2 Austin and Wolfe 2011 [24] Not given n I  = 464, n C  = 693; without HbA1c or LDL-C prior 12 mos; Midwestern university system; US. Quasi-experimental; Measurement: 12 mos. Letter reminder with a financial incentive
3 Avdal et al. 2011 [61] Type 2 n I  = 61, n C  = 61; diagnosis at least 6 mos, > 18 yrs old, on insulin, HbA1c > 7 %, completed diabetes education, can use computer and internet, and volunteered to participate; Turkey. RCT; Measurements: baseline and 6 mos. Web-based
Exclusion: advanced retinopathy or neuropathy.
4 Bailie et al. 2004 [62] Type 2 n B  = 137, n 6  = 137, n 1  = 133, n 2  = 123, n 3  = 146; Aboriginal people, Australia. Follow-up study over 3 years; Measurements: baseline, 6 mos, and year 1, 2, and 3. Electronic Health Record (EHR); Evidence-based Guidelines
5 Benhamou et al. 2007 [63] Type 1 n = 30; ≥ 18 years old, on external insulin pump for 3 mos, and HbA1c 7.5 %-10 %; France. Bicenter, open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study; 6 mos with SMS (short message service) followed by 6 mos without SMS or reverse sequence; Measurements: baseline and two 6-month periods. Web-based; SMS
Exclusion: retinopathy, pregnancy, unable to use software, out of mobile phone network, or unwilling to do 4 SMBG tests/day.
6 Bond et al. 2006 [64] Not given n = 15; diabetes, age 60 or older; Washington, US. Randomized in the first phase, pilot study Web-based
7 Bond et al. 2007 [36] 87 % Type 1, 13 % Type 2 n I  = 31;n C  = 31; ≥ 60 years old; having diagnosed with diabetes for at least 1 year, living independently in the community, fluency in English, West coast university health system; US. RCT; Randomized using two-tier strata (above and below 7.5 % HbA1c) and gender. Intervention subjects participated in one of two phases (each phase lasting one year); Measurements: baseline and 6 mos. Web-based; Behavioral
Exclusion: mod/severe cognitive, visual, or physical impairment or severe co-morbid disease.
8 Carter et al. 2011 [37] Type 2 n I  = 26, n C  = 21; type 2 diabetes 2 yrs prior to study, ≥ 18 yrs old, African American, 8th grade reading level, residing in Washington, DC, willing provider; US. RCT; Measurements: baseline and 9 mos. Web-based; Behavioral
Exclusion: visually or hearing impaired, non-English speaking, on dialysis or psychotropic meds.
9 Cavan et al. 2003 [65] Type 1 n = 6; type 1 diabetes and attended one-hour training session; United Kingdom Pilot study; Measurements: baseline, 3 and 6 mos, and year 1 and 2. Web-based
10 Cherry et al. 2002 [46] Not given n = 169; indigent or economically disadvantaged adults, competent, have telephone, can read or have reading assistance, reside and have physician in Mercy Health Center, Laredo, TX service area; US. Cohort; Measurements: baseline, quarterly for 2 quarters and 12 mos. Web-based; Telephone data line; Behavioral
11 Cho et al. 2006 [57] Type 2 n I  = 40, n C  = 40; ≥ 30 yrs old, > 6 mos in center; South Korea. Prospective, RCT; Measurements: baseline, 3-month intervals up to 30 mos. Web-based
Exclusion: disabling conditions, severe diabetes complications, intensified insulin regimen, no internet access, unwilling, or in similar programs.
12 Cho et al. 2009 [66] Type 2 Internet: n = 37; diabetes phone: n = 38; internet access and uses mobile phone/SMS; South Korea. Randomized, non-inferiority with active-controlled period; Measurements: baseline to 3 mos. Diabetes Phone; Web-based; SMS
Exclusion: heart failure, liver enzymes 2x normal, renal disease (creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL), in similar programs.
13 Cho et al. 2011 [67] Type 2 n I  = 35, n c  = 36; age ≥ 40; HbA1c from 7.0 to 11.0 %; followed at least 6 months in a public healthcare post in rural areas of Chung-ju, Korea. RCT; Measurements: Baseline and at 3 months. Web-based; Phone call; Performance feedback
Exclusion: diagnosed or suspected disease of liver, pancreas, endocrine organ, kidney; ischemic heart disease; cerebrovascular disease; creatinine >0.133 mmol/l; intensive insulin regimen; unable to attend regularly.
14 Chumbler et al. 2005 [21] Not given n I  = 400, n C  = 400; ≥ 2 Veterans Administration (VA) hospitalizations or emergency visits in last year, telephone access, non-institutionalized; Florida, Puerto Rico and Georgia; US. Retrospective, concurrent matched cohort; Measurements: 12 mos before and after. Web-based; Telephone data line
15 Ciemins et al. 2009 [52] Not given n = 495; adult, provider visit in last year; central/eastern Montana and northern Wyoming; US. Pre-post intervention, cohort; Measurements: 2 year baseline and two consecutive 2 year intervention periods. EHR; Registry; Patient and provider report cards; Evidence-based guidelines
Exclusion: gestational or steroid-induced diabetes, nursing home resident, prednisone use > 2 mos, or seen by endocrinologist for care and testing.
16 de Grauw et al. 2002 [19] Type 2 n = 432 baseline, n = 594 follow-up; type 2 diabetes; Nijmegen Academic Research Network, the Netherlands. Multicenter cross-sectional; Measurements: baseline and 6 yrs. Registry; Phone reminder
17 Derose et al. 2009 [25] Type 1 or 2 (based on ICD-9 codes) n I.1  = 2916, n I.2  = 1934, n I.3  = 1933, n I.4  = 2199, n I.5  = 2200, n C  = 1875; no HbA1c, LDL-C, and urinary microalbumin tests in > 1 yr, and birthday in 3 mos; Southern California Kaiser Permanent; US. RCT; Measurements: 2 consecutive 3-month periods. Letter and phone reminder
18 Dijkstra et al. 2005 [54] 32 % of intervention group patients are Type 1, 33 % of control group patients are Type 1 n I  = 351, nC = 418 patients; n I  = 4 n C  = 5 hospitals; n I  = 22, n C  = 20 internists; the Netherlands. Clustered, RCT; Measurements: baseline and post-intervention (time varied per indicator) Patient-held record (PHR); Evidence-based guidelines
19 Edelman et al. 2010 [34] Not given n I  = 133, n C  = 106; hypertension and diabetes, on diabetes medication, HbA1c > 7.5 % and systolic BP > 140 mm Hg or diastolic BP > 90 mm Hg; North Carolina and Virginia, US. RCT; Measurements: study midpoint (6.8 mos) and completion (12.8 mos). Financial incentive; Group visit
Exclusion: seen by endocrine clinic in past 6 mos, hospitalized for psychosis in past 3 yrs, cognitively impaired, or severe chronic illness.
20 Edwards et al. 2012 [17] Type 1 or 2 (based on ICD-9 codes) n I  = 94, n C  = 210; age 18 and 85 yrs; diabetes patients who were scheduled for appointments with a primary care provider between 08/2010 and 04/2011; University of Oklahoma Family Medicine Center (FMC) in Oklahoma City, US. RCT; Measurements: 1 year before the intervention, and immediate at intervention Phone call; Evidence-based guidelines
Exclusion: pregnant; recently seen in group visits; diabetes managed by a provider outside the FMC.
21 Farmer et al. 2005 [68] Type 1 n I  = 47, n C  = 46; United Kingdom; age 18–30 yrs, basal bolus insulin, last 2 HbA1c tests 8 -11 %. RCT, parallel-group; Measurements: baseline, 4 and 9 mos. Web-based; SMS
Exclusion: avoid tight glycemic control, another severe disease, cannot do SMBG, or other family member in trial.
22 Fischer et al. 2011 [13] Type 1 or 2 (based on ICD-9 codes) Mailed report cards: n I  = 2728, n C  = 2729; Printable report cards: n I  = 2357, n C  = 3100; Provider report cards: n I  = 2893, n C  = 2564; >17 yrs, at least one visit to clinic within 18 mos; Denver, CO; US. Nested randomized trial; Measurements: baseline and 13 mos. Registry; Patient and provider report cards; Mail reminder
Exclusion: >75 yrs, no mail address, cannot speak English or Spanish
23 Fischer et al. 2012 [69] Not given n = 47; age ≥ 18 yrs; diabetes, have cell phone; fluent in English or Spanish; regularly receive healthcare at a federally qualified community health center in Denver, Colorado, US. Quasi-experimental; Measurement: at 3 mos. SMS; Phone call; Behavioral
24 Glasgow et al. 2003 [70] Type 2 n = 320; live by self for ≥ 1 yr; have phone; read and write English; diabetes for at least 1 yr and not moving out of area next yr; Kaiser Colorado, US. RCT; 3 intervention groups: basic information, tailored self-management and peer support. Measurements: baseline and 10 mos. Web-based; Behavioral
25 Glasgow et al. 2004 [58] Type 2 n I  = 469, n C  = 417 patients; n I  = 24, n C  = 28 physicians (all physicians in Diabetes Priority Program); type 2 diabetes, ≥ 25 yrs old, can read English; Colorado; US. Two-group cluster, RCT; Measurements: baseline and 6 mos. Web-based
26 Grant et al. 2008 [55] Type 2 n I  = 126 n C  = 118 patients, n = 11 practices; HbA1c > 7 % in prior yr, active diabetes prescription, ≥ 1 visit within prior yr, active account with patient web-portal; eastern Massachusetts; US. RCT; Measurements: baseline and 12 mos. Web-based
27 Harno et al. 2006 [71] Type 1 or 2 n I  = 101, n C  = 74; type 1 or type 2 diabetes; 2 university hospital outpatient clinics; Finland. RCT; Measurements: baseline and 12 mos. Web-based; SMS
28 Holbrook et al. 2009 [28] Type 2 n I  = 253, n C  = 258; ≥ 18 yrs old, fluent in English and able to understand the study description; Ontario, Canada. Pragmatic RCT; Measurements: baseline and 6 mos. Web-based; Phone reminder, Behavioral
29 Hurwitz et al. 1993 [72] Type 2 n = 187; non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, ≤ 80 yrs old, attend clinic ≥ 2 yrs; United Kingdom. RCT; Measurements: baseline and 2 yrs. Letter and phone reminder
Exclusion: women of childbearing age or patients with significant diabetic complications.
30 Jones and Curry 2006 [50] Type 2 n I  = 58, n C  = 115; 2 provider visits during study, and ≤ 1 provider visit in opposite group; Pennsylvania; US Non-randomized clinical trial; historical control group; Measurements: baseline and within 16 mos after intervention. Personal digital assistant; Provider reminder; Letter reminder; Evidence-based guidelines
31 HS Kim et al. 2005 [44] Type 2 n = 42; able to do SBMG and self-injection of medication, access to web sites and cellular phone; South Korea. Quasi-experimental, one group, pretest-posttest; Measurements: baseline and 12 weeks. Web-based; SMS
Exclusion: severe illness, renal insufficiency (creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL) or on insulin pump.
32 HS Kim et al. 2006 [42] Type 2 n = 33; ≥ 30 yrs old, can do SMBG tests and medication injection, can input data to web, internet access, and cellular phone; South Korea. Quasi-experimental, one group, pretest-posttest; Measurements: baseline and 12 weeks. Web-based; SMS
Exclusion: heart failure, hepatic dysfunction, renal insufficiency, on insulin pump or other diabetes web offer.
33, 34 HS Kim 2007 [39, 40] Type 2 n I  = 25, n C  = 26; able to do SBMG and self-injection of medication, access to web sites and cellular phone; South Korea. Control group, pretest-posttest, randomized by random permuted block design; Measurements: baseline, and 3 mos. Web-based; SMS; Behavioral
Exclusion: severe illness, renal insufficiency, or on insulin pump.
35 HS Kim and Jeong 2007 [41] Type 2 n I  = 25, n C  = 26; able to do SBMG and self-injection of medication, able to input data to web site, had home internet access, and cellular phone; South Korea. Control group, pretest-posttest, randomized by random permuted block design; Measurements: baseline, 3, and 6 mos. Web-based; SMS
Exclusion: severe illness, renal insufficiency, or on insulin pump.
36 HS Kim and Song 2008 [43] Type 2 n I  = 18, n C  = 16; ≥ 30 yrs old, obese, able to do SBMG and self-medication, able to input data to web site, had home internet access, and cellular phone; South Korea. Quasi-experimental, repeated measures, pretest-posttest; Measurements: baseline, 3, and 6 mos. Web-based; SMS
Exclusion: heart failure, hepatic dysfunction, renal insufficiency, or on insulin pump.
37 SI Kim and HS Kim 2008 [73] Type 2 n I  = 18, n C  = 16; able to do SBMG and self-injection of medication, access to web sites and cellular phone; South Korea. Quasi-experimental, repeated measures, pretest-posttest; Measurements: baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mos. Web-based; SMS
Exclusion: severe illness, renal insufficiency, or on insulin pump.
38 Kirsh et al. 2007 [12] Type 2 n I  = 44, n C  = 35; one or more of following: A1c > 9 %, SBP >160 mm Hg and LDL-c >130 mg/dl; Veterans Healthcare System; US. Quasi-experimental, non-randomized concurrent controls; Measurements: baseline and 6 mos Letter reminder
39 Kwon et al. 2004 [74] Type 2 n I  = 51, n C  = 50; type 2 diabetes ≥ 1 yr, internet access, ≥ 30 yrs old; South Korea. RCT; Measurements: baseline and 12 weeks. Web-based
Exclusion: significant diseases likely to affect outcome (heart failure, hepatic dysfunction, renal insufficiency or on insulin pump).
40 Kwon et al. 2004 [45] 16.2 % Type 1, 82.7 % Type 2, 1.1 % secondary diabetes n = 185; diabetes ≥ 1 yr, internet access; South Korea. Non-randomized cohort; Measurements: baseline and 3 mos. Web-based; SMS
Exclusion: significant diseases likely to affect outcome (hepatic or renal failure).
41 Lafata et al. 2002 [14] Type 1 or 2 (based on ICD-9 codes) n I  = 1641, n C  = 1668; in patient registry, ≥ 18 yrs and ≥ 2 diabetes visits or at least 1 pharmacy claim for diabetes drug in last 24 mos; Michigan, US RCT; Measurements: 6 and 12 mos. Letter reminder
42 Lin et al. 2007 [29] Not given n I  = 33, nC = 35; Canadian primary care center. Historical cohort; Measurements: baseline and 3 years. Phone reminder; Evidence-based guidelines; Longer appointments
Exclusion: no family doctor and those without at least 2 diabetic follow-up appointments.
43 Litzelman et al. 1993 [75] Type 2 n I  = 191, n C  = 205; non-insulin dependent diabetes, ≥ 2 visits in prior yr, > 40 yrs old, diabetes diagnosis after age 30, 2 yrs with practice, and ideal or heavier than ideal body weight, at risk of lower-extremity amputation; Indianapolis; US. RCT; Measurements: baseline and 12 mos. Phone and postcard reminder; Behavioral
Exclusion: pregnancy, major psychiatric illness, dementia, terminal illness (death in 1 yr), renal failure, bilateral amputations and investigator’s patients.
44 Lorig et al. 2010 [76] Type 2 n I.1  = 209, n I.2  = 186, n I.3  = 395, n C  = 238; aged ≥ 18 yrs, not pregnant or in cancer care, physician verified type 2 diabetes diagnosis and access to the Internet. Effort to recruit American Indians/Alaskan Natives; California; US. RCT; Measurements: baseline, 6, and 18 mos. Web-based
45 Maclean et al. 2009 [20] Type 1 or 2 n I  = 3886, n C  = 3526 patients; n I  = 70, n C  = 62 physicians; n I  = 30, n C  = 34 practices; HbA1c in last 2 yrs; Vermont and New York; US. RCT; Practices randomized in blocks by hospital laboratory; Measurements: 32 mos. Registry; Decision support; Fax and Letter reminder
Exclusion: < 18 yrs, cognitive impairment or provider decision.
46 McCarrier et al. 2009 [77] Type 1 n I  = 41, n C  = 36; 21–49 yrs old, ≥ 2 encounters and at least 1 HbA1c in prior yr, recent HbA1c >7% and reside in King or Snohomish County, Center, Washington; US. Randomized, pretest-posttest trial; Measurements: 12 mos. Web-based
47 McDermott et al. 2001 [32] Not given n = 282 patients at 8 intervention sites, n = 396 patients at 13 control sites; mostly Torres Strait Islanders, Australia Randomized unblended, cluster trial; Measurements: baseline and 12 mos. Registry; Evidence based guidelines
48 McDiarmid et al. 2001 [51] Type 2 n = 258; urban family practice residency, Greensboro, North Carolina; US. Non-randomized, before/after, retrospective chart audit; Measurements: baseline and 12 mos. Evidence-based guidelines
49 McMahon et al. 2005 [78] Not given n I  = 52, n C  = 52; HbA1c ≥ 9 %, age > 18 yrs, understands written and spoken English, willingness to use notebook computer, glucose and BP devices; Boston VA Healthcare System; US. RCT; Measurements: baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mos. Web-based
50 McMahon et al. 2012 [47] Type 2 n I.1  = 51, n I.2  = 51, n I.3  = 49; age > 25 yrs, HbA1c > 8.5 %, understand written and spoken English, access to phone, willingness to use laptop, and BP and glucose monitoring devices, have a VA-based primary care provider; Boston, MA; US. RCT; Measurements: 3, 6, 9, and 12 mos. Web-based; Phone calls; Performance feedback
51 Mehler et al. 2005 [79] Type 2 n I.1  = 415, n I.2  = 146, n C  = 323 patients at 12 primary care practices; age ≥ 40 yrs; Denver-metro area; US. Stratified and randomized by practice type (family medicine, internal medicine or academic); Measurements: baseline and 15 mos. Evidence-based guidelines
52 Meigs et al. 2003 [49] Type 2 n I  = 307 patients, n I  = 12 providers; n C  = 291 patients, n C  = 14 providers; hospital-based staff-resident medical practice; Boston, Massachusetts; US. RCT; Measurements: 12 mos pre-intervention and 12 mos post-intervention. Web-based; Decision support; Evidence-based guidelines
53 Meulepas et al. 2007 [30] Type 2 n I  = 353 patients, n I  = 51 providers; n C  = 129 patients, n C  = 27 providers; documented diabetes for > 4 yrs at start of study; The Netherlands Controlled, non-randomized, before/after study with delayed intervention in control group; Measurements: 1 yr before intervention and 2 years after. Phone reminder
54 Meulepas et al. 2008 [31] Type 2 n I  = 431 patients, n I  = 23 providers; n C  = 469 patients, n C  = 28 providers; in the south of The Netherlands Controlled, non-randomized study, before/after; Measurements: 1 yr before intervention and 2 years after. Phone reminder
55 Moattari et al. 2013 [80] 97 % Type 1 n I  = 24, n C  = 24; have diabetes, need insulin, ability to use glucometer and inject insulin, ability to input data on a website, own cellphone; Shiraz, Iran. RCT; Measurements: baseline and 3 mos. Web-based; Phone; SMS
Exclusion: chronic disease or renal failure (creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl), use of insulin pump, pregnancy.
56 Moorman et al. 2012 [81] Not given n C  = 19, n I  = 18; Adult diabetic patients not working with a case manager, at least one request for a self-monitoring blood glucose log, Ohio, US Cohort study; Measurements: 3 mos. before the intervention and 3 mos. after. Letter reminder
Exclusion: No documented mailing address
57 Musacchio et al. 2011 [82] Type 2 n = 1004; HbA1c < 7 %, ability to follow educational program, and clinical data for prior 12 mos; Italy. Pre-post study; Measurements: baseline and 12 mos. Tele-medicine (phone and internet); EHR; Behavioral
58 Nes et al. 2012 [83] Type 2 n = 11; type 2 diabetes, no other inclusion/exclusion criteria reported; Oslo, Norway Snowball sample pilot study; baseline and 3 mos. Web-based; Performance feedback
59 Piette et al. 2000 [84] Not given n = 248; English or Spanish speaking adults; California; US. Randomized control trial; Measurements: baseline and 12 mos. Automated phone call
Exclusion: >75 yrs, psychotic, sensory impairment, or life expectancy <12 mos, on hypoglycemic medication, diabetes ≤ 6 mos, plan to stop clinic services during study period, no push-button phone.
60 Rai et al. 2011 [18] Type 1 or 2 (based on ICD-9 codes) n I  = 1765, n C  = 1315; 2 diabetes and hypertension ICD-9 codes in billing data in past 2 yrs; no provider visit in last 6 mos; Wisconsin; US. Quasi-experimental; Measurement: 6 mos. Phone reminder
Exclusion: patient without history of treatment by provider.
61 Ralston et al. 2009 [38] Type 2 n I  = 39, n C  = 35; 18–75 yrs old, last HbA1c ≥ 7 %, at least two visits in prior year; University of Washington; US. Randomized, single-centered, controlled trial with parallel group design; Measurements: 12 mos before intervention and 12 mos after. Web-based; Decision support
Exclusion: in pilot, psychological illness, non-English speaking, resident as provider or mostly specialty care.
62 Ryan et al. 2013 [85] Type 2 n I  = 24; age 21 and older; established patient; seen at least once for diabetes management during the previous 12 months; Most recent A1c < 10; last A1c within last 6 months; a community health clinic in Miami, Florida, US. Pretest-posttest; Measurements: baseline and 13 mos. Web-based
Exclusion: Did not speak English; had an emergency room discharge or hospital admission for a diabetes-related complication during the 6 months before recruitment; were homeless or did not have control of the given living situation; had significant cognitive impairment or psychological distress; had known substance or alcohol abuse.
63 Sacco et al. 2009 [48] Type 2 n I  = 31, n C  = 31; age18 – 65 yrs, reads and speaks English, reachable by phone, HbA1c > 6.5 %, cardiovascular risk factor; Florida; US Randomized, pretest-posttest; Measurements: baseline and 6 mos. Behavioral; Phone coaching
Exclusion: major medical/mental disorder.
64 Sadur et al. 1999 [22] Type 1 or 2 16-75 yrs old, recent HbA1c > 8.5 % or no HbA1c in last year; Kaiser; California; US. RCT; Measurements: baseline and 6 mos. Hospitalization rate measured 12 mos before intervention and 18 mos after. Group visit; Phone; Behavioral
Exclusion: pregnancy, dementia, no English, cannot attend monthly meetings.
65 Seto et al. 2012 [16] Type 1 or 2 n I  = 580; age 18 and older; seen at the health center between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010; a primary care clinic in San Jose, California, US. Pretest-posttest; Measurements: baseline and 7 mos. Registry; Appointment reminder
Exclusion: No baseline A1c; gestational diabetes
66 DM Smith et al. 1987 [27] Not given n I  = 425, n C  = 429; patients with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents prescribed, reported all care received at center, not residents of nursing home or other institution, ≥ 15 yrs old, visited clinic in last yr and had scheduled appointment to return to clinic; metropolitan Indianapolis; US. RCT; Measurement: 2 yrs. Letter and phone reminder
67 KE Smith et al. 2004 [86] Type 1 or 2 n = 16; ≥ 18 yrs old, no unstable cardiac disease or organ transplantation, can read computer monitor, and HbA1c > 8.5 %; Georgetown University Hospital; US. Non-randomized, prospective feasibility; Measurements: baseline and 6 mos. Web-based
68 Song et al. 2009 [87] Type 2 n I.1  = 15, n C  = 16; adults, new diagnosis type 2 diabetes, never attended formal self-management education by health professional or over internet; Seoul, Korea. Quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pretest-posttest; Measurements: baseline, 6 weeks, and 3 mos. Web-based; Behavioral
69 Stone et al. 2012 [88] Not given n I.1  = 21, n I.2  = 23, n I.3  = 28, n I.4  = 29; age 18–79 yrs; diagnosis defined as 12 or more months of pharmacologic treatment for diabetes; HbA1c ≥ 7.5 %; no comorbid conditions indicating life expectancy of less than 5 years; private residence with telephone land line; VA Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US. RCT; pretest-posttest; Measurements: baseline, 3, and 6 mos. Tele-monitoring (phone); Performance feedback
Exclusion: Did not have a telephone landline.
70 Subramanian et al. 2009 [23] Type 2 n I  = 3147, n C  = 913; prescription refill for hypoglycemic agent without polycystic ovarian disease, HbA1c ≥ 9 % or elevated FBS ≥ 200 mg/dL; Indianapolis; US. Retrospective, cohort; Measurements: 1 yr before intervention and 1 yr after. Open access (OA)
Exclusion: missing all lab tests, vital signs, or visit data in study period.
71 Tang et al. 2013 [89] Type 2 n I  = 193, n C  = 189; age ≥ 18 yrs; HbA1c ≥ 7.5 %; seen within the past 12 months; a not-for-profit healthcare organization in Palo Alto, California, US. RCT; Measurements: Baseline, 6 and 12 mos. Web-based; Performance feedback; EHR; Behavioral
Exclusion: initial diagnosis within the last 12 months; inability to speak or read English; lack of regular internet access; unwillingness to perform self-monitoring at home; diagnosis of a terminal disease and/or entry into hospice care; pregnancy, planning pregnancy or currently lactating; enrollment in another care management program; resident of a long-term facility; uninsured; plans to discontinue primary care at current location; family household member enrolled in EMPOWER-D study.
72 Thomas et al. 2007 [26] Not given n I  = 78 resident physicians, n C  = 39; Internal Medicine residents; Mayo Clinic, Minnesota; US. RCT; Randomization stratified by clinic day across 5 practice sections; Measurements: baseline and completion including prior 6 mos for HbA1c and prior 12 mos for lipids. Registry; Evidence-based guidelines; Performance feedback; Letter reminder
73 Tildesley et al. 2010 [90] Type 2 n I  = 24, n C  = 23; on insulin alone or with oral hypo-glycemic medication, recent HbA1c >7.0 %, internet access, and training in SMBG; Vancouver, Canada RCT; Measurements: baseline, 3 and 6 mos. Web-based; Performance feedback
74 Weber et al. 2008 [53] Not given Gesinger Health System of 38 practice sites and > 20,000 diabetes patients >18 years old in 40-county region of central and northeastern Pennsylvania; US. Retrospective, cohort; Measurements: baseline time period (12 mos before) and monthly after implementation of intervention for 12 mos. Registry; Evidence-based guidelines; Provider reminder; Performance feedback
75 Yeh et al. 2006 [33] Type 2 n I  = 134, n C  = 140; medical teaching hospital in Taipei, Taiwan RCT; Measurements: pre-intervention and post-intervention (8 month follow-up). Web-based; SMS;
76 Yoo et al. 2009 [91] Type 2 n I  = 57, n C  = 54; age 30 and 70 yrs; hypertension and type 2 diabetes diagnoses in last year; HbA1c 6.5–10.0 %; BP > 130⁄80 mmHg; BMI ≥ 23.0 kg⁄m2; Seoul, Korea. RCT; Measurements: base line and 3 mos. Web-based; Phone reminder; Telephone data line; Automated performance feedback; SMS
Exclusion: Severe diabetic complications; liver dysfunction with enzymes >2.5x normal, or renal dysfunction, diagnoses of heart failure, angina, myocardial infarction, or stroke, pregnancy or lactation.
77 Yoon and HS Kim 2008 [92] Type 2 n I  = 25, n C  = 26; ability to perform SBMG, access websites, and cellular phone with web access; university medical center, urban city of South Korea. RCT, pretest-posttest; Measurements: baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mos. Web-based; SMS
Exclusion: severe illness, renal insufficiency with creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL or on insulin pump.
  1. I intervention group, C control group