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Table 2 Classification of used criteria [24]

From: Balancing costs and benefits at different stages of medical innovation: a systematic review of Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA)

Categories of classification system Number of criteria Number of studies Terms used in articles
Health outcomes and benefits of interventions 12 16 Health effects [26], health gain (with 4 sub criteria: life expectancy, quality of life, burden of treatment, prevalence) [34], improvement of efficacy/effectiveness [36, 37, 39, 40], improvement of safety & tolerability [36, 37, 39, 40], improvement of patient reported outcome [36, 37, 39, 40], health benefit [43] , effectiveness [30, 38, 41, 42, 45, 46], patient comfort [30], safety [30, 33, 46], health-related quality of life [31, 41], complications during surgery [31], program outcome [32],
Type of health benefit 4 9 Individual health benefits [25, 27, 46], public benefits [29], public health interest [36, 37, 39, 40], type of medical service [36, 37, 39, 40, 42]
Impact of the disease targeted by intervention 10 13 Severity of disease [2528, 3537, 39, 40, 45], number of potential beneficiaries [25, 27, 28], size of population affected by disease [36, 37, 39, 40, 45], age of target group [2528, 35], socioeconomic group [35], equity benefit [43], target groups of interventions [42], gender of target groups [42], eligible population [44], distribution of benefits [44]
Therapeutic context of intervention 4 5 Clinical guidelines [36, 37, 39, 40], comparative interventions limitations [36, 37, 39, 40], need [41], prevention [41]
Economic Impact 12 22 Costs [30, 31, 33], poverty reduction [2528], cost-effectiveness [2528, 3537, 39, 40, 46], total budget impact to health system [26, 3640, 43, 45], costs of care [34], marketability [29], Impact on other spending [36, 37, 39, 40], program infrastructure [32], program outcome [32], Incremental cost-effectiveness [44, 45], affordability [44, 46]
Quality and uncertainty of evidence 5 8 Adherence to requirements of decision making body [36], completeness and consistency of reporting evidence [36, 37, 39, 40], relevance and validity of evidence [36, 37, 39, 40], quality of evidence [42, 43, 46], certainty [44]
Implementation complexity of intervention 10 9 Technology applicability [29], system capacity and appropriate use of intervention [37, 40], technical feasibility [38], practical feasibility [38], information follow-up in time [38], clinical factors [33], biomedical engineering [33] , process [32, 41], variation in practice [45], technical complexity [46]
Priorities, fairness and ethics 11 7 Utility [37, 40], efficiency [37, 40], fairness [37, 40], ‘X-factors’ [43], ethical acceptability [38] access and equity [41], priorities [41], equity/ethical and social implication [45], geographical coverage [46], accessibility [46]
Overall context 10 7 Stakeholder pressure [37, 40] , political context [37, 40], ‘X-factors’ [43], impact on heath education [38], Impact on future decisions [39], relationship with pathology providers [39], impact on screening intervals [39], patient expectation [39], program infrastructure [32], acceptability [46]
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