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Table 6 Impact of comorbidities on index hospitalization costs for ICU patients with S. aureus or P. aeruginosa pneumonia

From: Healthcare utilization and costs associated with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa pneumonia in the intensive care unit: a retrospective observational cohort study in a US claims database

Comorbidity S. aureus pneumonia P. aeruginosa pneumonia
Odds Ratioa P Valuea Odds Ratioa P Valuea
(95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Diabetes 1.10 (0.93, 1.31) .27 1.12 (0.86, 1.46) .40
Myocardial infarction 0.58 (0.42, 0.82) .002 1.14 (0.71, 1.82) .59
Congestive heart failure 0.74 (0.60, 0.92) .007 0.72 (0.52, 0.99) .04
Peripheral artery disease 0.69 (0.54, 0.88) .003 0.70 (0.49, 0.99) .04
Stroke, TIA, cerebrovascular disease 0.81 (0.65, 1.01) .06 1.17 (0.83, 1.65) .37
Hypertension 0.96 (0.80, 1.14) .62 1.16 (0.88, 1.52) .29
Other coronary heart disease 0.80 (0.66, 0.97) .03 0.94 (0.71, 1.24) .65
Anemia 0.88 (0.72, 1.07) .20 1.12 (0.84, 1.50) .44
COPD 0.68 (0.57, 0.82) <.001 0.46 (0.35, 0.60) <.001
Asthma 0.95 (0.76, 1.20) .67 0.60 (0.43, 0.84) .003
Renal disease 0.90 (0.70, 1.15) .38 1.06 (0.73, 1.52) .77
Chronic liver disease 1.17 (0.87, 1.58) .29 0.85 (0.54, 1.33) .47
Neutropenia 1.53 (0.91, 2.58) .11 0.59 (0.29, 1.19) .14
Immunosuppression 1.05 (0.51, 2.16) .89 0.39 (0.16, 0.96) .04
HIV 1.00 (0.34, 2.90) .996 0.27 (0.08, 0.88) .03
Hepatitis B 4.77 (1.05, 21.72) .04 0.04 (0.00, 0.74) .03
Hepatitis C 0.96 (0.45, 2.05) .92 0.57 (0.19, 1.70) .31
Obesity/Overweight 1.03 (0.78, 1.36) .86 1.15 (0.76, 1.75) .50
Dementia 0.55 (0.35, 0.86) .009 1.76 (0.75, 4.15) .20
Dialysis 0.62 (0.33, 1.15) .13 1.21 (0.53, 2.78) .65
Leukemia 0.61 (0.27, 1.35) .22 1.03 (0.43, 2.47) .95
Lymphoma 1.60 (0.91, 2.82) .11 1.21 (0.56, 2.58) .63
Cancer other than leukemia or lymphoma 0.88 (0.58, 1.34) .56 0.93 (0.51, 1.70) .82
Bone marrow transplant 0.89 (0.15, 5.30) .89 0.61 (0.11, 3.43) .58
Solid organ transplant 1.90 (1.02, 3.53) .04 1.31 (0.66, 2.57) .44
  1. CI confidence interval, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, ICU intensive care unit, TIA transient ischemic attack
  2. aOrdinal logistic regression odds ratio (OR) is used to test the association between the presence of each comorbidity and index hospitalization cost quintiles, ie, OR = Odds (patient with comorbidity in high cost quintile)/ Odds (patient without comorbidity in high cost quintile). OR >1 means presence of the comorbidity leads to greater costs, whereas OR <1 means presence of the comorbidity leads to lower costs
  3. All statistical models were controlled for the following variables: age (continuously), gender, health plan type, geographic region, prior inpatient hospitalization costs during the 12 month pre-index period, prior healthcare utilization during the 12 month pre-index period (inpatient stays [0 vs 1+], emergency room visits [0 vs 1+], outpatient and office visits [continuous]), and prior antibiotic use during the 12 month pre-index period (0 vs. 1+)