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Table 5 Healthcare resource utilization for ICU patients with S. aureus or P. aeruginosa pneumonia versus controls through 90 days post index hospitalization

From: Healthcare utilization and costs associated with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa pneumonia in the intensive care unit: a retrospective observational cohort study in a US claims database

  Cohorts of interest S. aureus pneumonia vs No pneumonia P. aeruginosa pneumonia vs No pneumonia
No pneumonia S. aureus pneumonia P. aeruginosa pneumonia Odds Ratio/Differencea P Valuea Odds Ratio/Differenceb P Valueb
(95 % CI) (95 % CI)
No. of patients completing 90 day follow up periodc n = 189,597 n = 1685 n = 687     
All-cause inpatient hospitalizations        
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 event 44,246 (23.3) 641 (38.0) 295 (42.9) 2.02 (1.83, 2.23) <.001 2.48 (2.13, 2.88) <.001
Mean (SD) events per patient with at least 1 event 1.5 (1.0) 1.9 (2.0) 2.0 (1.9) 0.45 (0.34, 0.56) <.001 0.46 (0.31, 0.63) <.001
Mean (SD) length of stay per patient with at least 1 event 7.8 (10.7) 14.7 (18.4) 17.5 (19.8) 6.96 (5.82, 8.19) <.001 9.79 (7.85. 11.97) <.001
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 hospitalization for pneumonia due to S. aureus 112 (0.06) 64 (3.8) 20 (2.9) 66.80 (48.95, 91.17) <.001 50.74 (31.34, 82.14) <.001
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 hospitalization for pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa 63 (0.03) 29 (1.7) 59 (8.6) 52.69 (33.85, 82.01) <.001 282.61(196.46, 406.55) <.001
ICU stays        
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 event 9,399 (5.0) 163 (9.7) 97 (14.1) 2.05 (1.75, 2.42) <.001 3.15 (2.54, 3.91) <.001
Mean (SD) events per patients with at least 1 event 1.1 (0.4) 1.1 (0.3) 1.2 (0.5) -0.02 (-0.17, 0.15) .80 0.10 (-0.10, 0.34) .37
Mean (SD) length of stay per patients with at least 1 event 1.6 (3.6) 3.5 (10.1) 1.9 (3.6) 1.92 (1.46, 2.44) <.001 0.34 (-0.01, 0.77) .06
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 hospitalization for pneumonia due to S. aureus 66 (0.03) 25 (1.5) 9 (1.3) 43.25 (27.23, 68.70) <.001 38.13 (18.93, 76.81) <.001
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 hospitalization for pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa 32 (0.02) 17 (1.0) 30 (4.4) 60.38 (33.46, 108.94) <.001 270.47 (163.40, 447.69) <.001
  1. CI confidence interval, ICU intensive care unit
  2. aOdds ratio (OR) from Chi-square test is used for categorical variables, negative binomial models are used to test for differences between means for count variables (number of events and length of stay). Statistical comparisons are comparing Cohort 3 (pneumonia due to S. aureus) with Cohort 1 (no pneumonia, reference group); ie, Difference = mean (Cohort 3) − mean (Cohort 1) and OR = Odds (Cohort 3)/Odds (Cohort 1)
  3. bOdds ratio (OR) from Chi-square test is used for categorical variables, negative binomial models are used to test for differences between means for count variables (number of events and length of stay). Statistical comparisons are comparing Cohort 4 (pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa) to Cohort 1 (no pneumonia, reference group); ie, Difference = mean (Cohort 4) – mean (Cohort 1) and OR = Odds (Cohort 4)/Odds (Cohort 1)
  4. cPost-index utilization results include only patients who survived to the end of the 30 or 90 day post-discharge period