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Table 4 Healthcare resource utilization for ICU patients with S. aureus or P. aeruginosa pneumonia versus controls through 30 days post index hospitalization

From: Healthcare utilization and costs associated with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa pneumonia in the intensive care unit: a retrospective observational cohort study in a US claims database

  Cohorts of interest S. aureus pneumonia vs No pneumonia P. aeruginosa pneumonia vs No pneumonia
No pneumonia S. aureus pneumonia P. aeruginosa pneumonia Odds Ratio/Differencea P Valuea Odds Ratio/Differenceb P Valueb
(95 % CI) (95 % CI)
No. of patients completing 30 day follow up periodc n = 192,204 n = 1762 n = 732     
All-cause inpatient hospitalizations        
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 event 29,451 (15.3) 480 (27.2) 228 (31.1) 2.07 (1.86, 2.30) <.001 2.50 (2.14, 2.93) <.001
Mean (SD) events per patient with at least 1 event 1.3 (0.7) 1.6 (1.3) 1.5 (1.2) 0.30 (0.19, 0.42) <.001 0.24 (0.09, 0.41) .002
Mean (SD) length of stay per patient with at least 1 event 5.4 (5.5) 8.4 (7.3) 9.5 (7.7) 3.02 (2.38, 3.71) <.001 4.15 (3.13, 5.29) <.001
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 hospitalization for pneumonia due to S. aureus 52 (0.03) 46 (2.6) 13 (1.8) 99.06 (66.43, 147.71) <.001 66.81 (36.22, 123.23) <.001
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 hospitalization for pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa 31 (0.02) 16 (0.9) 38 (5.2) 56.81 (31.02, 104.05) <.001 339.43 (210.00, 548.64) <.001
ICU stays        
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 event 5027 (2.6) 84 (4.8) 55 (7.5) 1.86 (1.50, 2.33) <.001 3.03 (2.30, 3.99) <.001
Mean (SD) events per patient with at least 1 event 1.0 (0.2) 1.0 (0.1) 1.0 (0.0) -0.01 (-0.21, 0.23) .89 −0.03 (−0.26, 0.28) .85
Mean (SD) length of stay per patient with at least 1 event 1.3 (1.6) 1.4 (3.0) 1.3 (1.2) 0.10 (-0.14, 0.40) .44 0.02 (−0.27, 0.38) .91
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 hospitalization for pneumonia due to S. aureus 34 (0.02) 18 (1.0) 7 (1.0) 58.34 (32.88, 103.49) <.001 54.57 (24.11, 123.50) <.001
No. (%) of patients with ≥1 hospitalization for pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa 18 (0.01) 8 (0.5) 17 (2.3) 48.72 (21.16, 112.18) <.001 253.83 (130.29, 494.51) <.001
  1. CI confidence interval, ICU intensive care unit
  2. aOdds ratio (OR) from Chi-square test is used for categorical variables, negative binomial models are used to test for differences between means for count variables (number of events and length of stay). Statistical comparisons are comparing Cohort 3 (pneumonia due to S. aureus) with Cohort 1 (no pneumonia, reference group); ie, Difference = mean (Cohort 3) − mean (Cohort 1) and OR = Odds (Cohort 3)/Odds (Cohort 1)
  3. bOdds ratio (OR) from Chi-square test is used for categorical variables, negative binomial models are used to test for differences between means for count variables (number of events and length of stay). Statistical comparisons are comparing Cohort 4 (pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa) to Cohort 1 (no pneumonia, reference group); ie, Difference = mean (Cohort 4) – mean (Cohort 1) and OR = Odds (Cohort 4)/Odds (Cohort 1)
  4. cPost-index utilization results include only patients who survived to the end of the 30 or 90 day post-discharge period