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Table 1 Healthcare costs for ICU patients with S. aureus or P. aeruginosa pneumonia versus controls

From: Healthcare utilization and costs associated with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa pneumonia in the intensive care unit: a retrospective observational cohort study in a US claims database

     Pneumonia due to S. aureus vs No pneumonia Pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa vs No pneumonia
  No pneumonia, mean (SD) (n = 201,394) S. aureus pneumonia, mean (SD) (n = 2275) P. aeruginosa pneumonia, mean (SD) (n = 1007) Differencea P valuea Differenceb P valueb
(95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Pre-index costs,c $ (12 months)
Total all-cause costs 17,379 (38,923) 24,865 (55,676) 29,364 (65,771) 7,487 (6,024, 9,041) <.001 11,985 (9,436, 14,776) <.001
Inpatient hospitalization costs 5,985 (25,095) 10,389 (40,126) 11,885 (47,091) 4,405 (3,274, 5,674) <.001 5,900 (4,015, 8,140) <.001
Index hospitalization costs,c $
Total costs 33,851 (51,770) 146,978 (235,598) 213,104 (338,552) 100,216 (94,346, 106,360) <.001 159,361 (146,758, 172,856) <.001
Post-index costs,c $ (30 days)
Total all-cause costs 4,732 (18,044) 8,243 (23,838) 11,122 (42,503) 3,773 (3,236, 4,348) <.001 6,327 (5,285, 7,484) <.001
Inpatient hospitalization costs 2,610 (17,052) 4,836 (22,950) 7,447 (41,852) 2,710 (2,147, 3,343) <.001 5,139 (3,924, 6,590) <.001
Post-index costs,c $ (90 days)
Total all-cause costs 10,575 (27,653) 17,460 (39,286) 22,277 (54,113) 7,250 (6,231, 8,335) <.001 10,842 (9,014, 12,852) <.001
Inpatient hospitalization costs 4,913 (23,187) 9,281 (35,261) 13,527 (50,214) 4,731 (3,727, 5,860) <.001 8118 (6,110, 10,513) <.001
Index hospitalization + post-index costs (30 days),c $
Total all-cause costs 38,583 (57,402) 155,221 (240,527) 224,226 (346,331) 101,579 (95,681, 107,742) <.001 162,756 (150,118, 176,254) <.001
Inpatient hospitalization costs 36,461 (56,270) 151,813 (239,022) 220,552 (344,991) 102,287 (96,175, 108,687) <.001 163,862 (150,714, 177,947) <.001
  1. CI confidence interval, ICU intensive care unit
  2. aDifferences in means are from gamma regression model (link = log). Statistical comparisons are comparing Cohort 3 (pneumonia due to S. aureus) with Cohort 1 (no pneumonia, reference group); ie, Difference = mean (Cohort 3) − mean (Cohort 1)
  3. bDifferences in means are from gamma regression model (link = log). Statistical comparisons are comparing Cohort 4 (pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa) with Cohort 1 (no pneumonia, reference group); ie, Difference = mean (Cohort 4) − mean (Cohort 1)
  4. cCosts include $0 costs. All costs adjusted for calendar year, reported in 2012 dollars. All costs rounded to nearest dollar
  5. All statistical models were controlled for the following variables: age (continuously), gender, health plan type, geographic region, and DCI comorbidity score. Models of index hospitalization costs and post-index costs were also controlled for the analogous healthcare costs during the 12 month pre-index period. Additional covariates were selected separately for each outcome using a forward selection method. The following additional covariates were considered for inclusion in the models: comorbid conditions (binary for each condition), prior healthcare utilization during the 12 month pre-index period (inpatient stays [0 vs 1+], emergency room visits [0 vs 1+], outpatient and office visits [continuous]), and prior antibiotic use during the 12 month pre-index period (0 vs. 1+)