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Table 1 Description of independent variables in 2008 and 2013

From: Measurement and explanation of socioeconomic inequality in catastrophic health care expenditure: evidence from the rural areas of Shaanxi Province

Variables Description 2008 2013
N = 3217 N = 13085
N(%) N(%)
Having elderly members    
No* 1 if all household members below 65 years old, 0 otherwise. 2431(75.57) 9498(72.59)
Yes 1 if household having members over 65 years old, 0 otherwise 786(24.43) 3587(27.41)
Having children in the household    
No* 1 if all household members over 5 years old, 0 otherwise. 2645(82.22) 10972(83.85)
Yes 1 if household having members below 5 years old, 0 otherwise 572(17.78) 2113(16.15)
Household size    
1-2 members 1 if 1–2 household members, 0 otherwise 1165(36.21) 6764(51.69)
3-4 members 1 if 3–4 household members, 0 otherwise 1452(45.14) 4909(37.52)
≥5 members* 1 if more than 5 household members, 0 otherwise. 600(18.65) 1412(10.79)
Having chronic disease members    
No* 1 if no household members having doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases, 0 otherwise. 2164(67.27) 7734(59.11)
Yes 1 if having household members having doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases, 0 otherwise 1053(32.73) 5351(40.89)
Household head’s gender    
Female* 1 if the head of household was female, 0 otherwise. 556(17.28) 2832(21.64)
Male 1 if the head of household was male, 0 otherwise 2661(82.72) 10253(78.36)
Household head’s educational achievement    
Illiteracy 1 if the head of household was illiteracy, 0 otherwise 618(19.21) 2205(16.85)
Elementary 1 if household head graduating from elementary school, 0 otherwise 1052(32.70) 4262(32.57)
Middle school 1 if household head graduating from middle school, 0 otherwise 1285(39.95) 5336(40.78)
High school and above* 1 if household head graduating from high school or university, 0 otherwise. 262(8.14) 1282(9.80)
Inpatient service usage    
No* 1 if no household members used outpatient services in the last two weeks, 0 otherwise. 2767(86.01) 10285(78.60)
Yes 1 if having household members used outpatient services in the last two weeks, 0 otherwise 450(13.99) 2800(21.40)
Outpatient service usage    
No* 1 if no household members used inpatient services in the last year, 0 otherwise. 2679(83.28) 10605(81.05)
Yes 1 if household members used inpatient services in the last year, 0 otherwise 538(16.72) 2480(18.95)
Absence of social health insurance    
No* 1 if all household members covered by social health insurance, 0 otherwise. 2835(88.13) 12754(97.47)
Yes 1 if having household members not covered by social health insurance, 0 otherwise 382(11.87) 331(2.53)
Absence of commercial health insurance    
No* 1 if having household members covered by commercial health insurance, 0 otherwise. 463(14.39) 1253(9.58)
Yes 1 if all household members not covered by commercial health insurance, 0 otherwise 2754(85.61) 11832(90.42)
Economic status    
Quintile 1 (poorest) 1 if the 20 % low income households, 0 otherwise 645(20.05) 2617(20.00)
Quintile 2 (poorer) 1 if the 20 % low middle income households, 0 otherwise 643(19.99) 2626(20.07)
Quintile 3 (middle) 1 if the 20 % middle income households, 0 otherwise 640(19.89) 2654(20.28)
Quintile 4 (richer) 1 if the 20 % high middle income households, 0 otherwise 636(19.77) 2581(19.73)
Quintile 5 (richest)* 1 if the 20 % high income households, 0 otherwise. 653(20.30) 2607(19.92)
  1. * Reference groups