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Table 2 Procedures with ≥1 % prevalence in the derivation cohort

From: Procedure-based severity index for inpatients: development and validation using administrative database

  Surviving patients (n = 244 416) Deceased patients (n = 25 638) P valuea
% (n) % (n)  
Blood chemistry tests 87.2 (213 046) 89.5 (22 949) <0.001  
Hematology tests 86.1 (210 402) 88.6 (22 704) <0.001  
Plasma protein immunology testsb 81.0 (198 064) 85.4 (21 896) <0.001  
Radiography 78.1 (190 981) 81.6 (20 922) <0.001  
Electrocardiogram 69.3 (169 490) 69.7 (17 869) 0.244 #
Peripheral intravenous infusion 65.1 (159 043) 72.5 (18 581) <0.001  
Coagulation tests 59.5 (145 418) 62.2 (15 937) <0.001  
Computed tomography scan 50.6 (123 559) 62.2 (15 938) <0.001  
Infectious disease immunology testsc 50.5 (123 481) 49.2 (12 622) <0.001
Hepatitis virus tests 39.5 (96 552) 37.8 (9681) <0.001
Heart rate/respiration monitoring 37.4 (91 457) 49.8 (12 770) <0.001  
Pulse oximetry 34.9 (85 254) 51.2 (13 128) <0.001  
Oxygen administration 30.5 (74 526) 54.5 (13 961) <0.001  
Urine tests (general) 32.0 (78 225) 35.3 (9046) <0.001  
Endocrinology tests 28.3 (69 282) 32.1 (8222) <0.001  
Bacterial culture 25.0 (61 069) 34.5 (8852) <0.001  
Urine microscopy 21.6 (52 891) 24.2 (6211) <0.001  
Immunohematology testsd 21.8 (53 197) 21.4 (5486) 0.175 #
Bacterial microscopy 20.1 (49 180) 27.8 (7127) <0.001  
Urinary catheter insertion 18.0 (43 933) 37.2 (9534) <0.001  
Ultrasound imaging 18.9 (46 118) 18.8 (4830) 0.909 #
Magnetic resonance imaging 18.6 (45 489) 10.2 (2615) <0.001
Acid-fast bacilli culture 8.5 (20 879) 10.6 (2727) <0.001  
Bacterial drug susceptibility tests 7.2 (17 667) 12.7 (3267) <0.001  
Sputum suction 5.3 (13 061) 22.2 (5680) <0.001  
Use of catecholamines or vasopressin 5.1 (12 371) 12.3 (3143) <0.001  
Red blood cell transfusion 5.0 (12 268) 5.2 (1324) 0.313 #
Nucleic acid amplification tests 3.7 (9102) 4.6 (1178) <0.001  
Tumor markers 3.3 (8018) 2.6 (667) <0.001
Invasive arterial pressure measurement 2.3 (5649) 4.4 (1130) <0.001  
Autoantibody tests 2.3 (5740) 1.9 (488) <0.001
Urine chemistry tests 2.1 (5130) 2.6 (654) <0.001  
Gastric drainage tube insertion 1.6 (3993) 6.1 (1559) <0.001  
Central venous catheter insertion 1.2 (2997) 5.3 (1346) <0.001  
Intratracheal intubation 0.9 (2252) 7.7 (1963) <0.001  
Stool tests 1.4 (3377) 1.2 (311) 0.027
Central venous infusion 1.0 (2467) 4.5 (1163) <0.001  
Temporary urinary catheterization 1.0 (2465) 1.4 (352) <0.001  
  1. aThe P values were obtained by the chi-square test for in-hospital death
  2. bFor example, C-reactive protein, complement activity
  3. cFor example, viral antibody tests, β-D-glucan assay
  4. dFor example, blood type test, Coombs test
  5. # Not significant
  6. † Significantly associated with decreased risk of death