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Table 4 Factors associated with lipid testing among adults with low cardiovascular risk (<10 %) and no CVD risk factors

From: Relationship between cardiovascular risk and lipid testing in one health care system: a retrospective cohort study

  Men Women
  Total sample Tested more than recommended Unadjusted Adjusted Total sample Tested more than recommended Unadjusted Adjusted
  N n (%) RR (95 % CI) RR (95 % CI) N n (%) RR (95 % CI) RR (95 % CI)
Overall 4977 1266 (25.4)    15185 9341 (61.5)   
Age
 25–34 891 319 (35.8) Referent Referent 2017 508 (25.2) Referent Referent
 35–44 2040 372 (18.2) 0.51 (0.45, 0.58) 0.54 (0.46, 0.63) 3730 1843 (49.4) 1.96 (1.81, 2.13) 2.04 (1.86, 2.24)
 45–54 1853 508 (27.4) 0.77 (0.68, 0.86) 0.80 (0.70, 0.92) 4708 3301 (70.1) 2.78 (2.58, 3.01) 2.84 (2.60, 3.11)
 55–64 192 66 (34.4) 0.97 (0.78, 1.20) 0.87 (0.68, 1.12) 3869 3004 (77.6) 3.08 (2.85, 3.33) 3.16 (2.89, 3.45)
 65–79 1* 1* (100.0) -- -- 861 685 (79.6) 3.16 (2.91, 3.43) 3.01 (2.64, 3.43)
Race
 White 2779 679 (24.4) Referent Referent 11012 6926 (62.9) Referent Referent
 Asian 469 181 (38.6) 1.58 (1.38, 1.80) 1.63 (1.43, 1.86) 1915 1356 (70.8) 1.13 (1.09, 1.16) 1.20 (1.16, 1.24)
 Black 164 50 (30.5) 1.25 (0.98, 1.59) 1.30 (1.03, 1.65) 383 231 (60.3) 0.96 (0.88, 1.04) 1.09 (1.01, 1.18)
 Other 81 17 (21.0) 0.86 (0.56, 1.32) 0.86 (0.55, 1.32) 301 171 (56.8) 0.90 (0.82, 1.00) 1.01 (0.92, 1.11)
RUB
 0 = No diagnoses 512 89 (17.4) 0.80 (0.64, 1.02) 0.93 (0.70, 1.23) 786 419 (53.3) 0.89 (0.82, 0.96) 0.89 (0.83, 0.96)
 1 = Low 722 156 (21.6) Referent Referent 1879 1127 (60.0) Referent Referent
 2 1212 301 (24.8) 1.15 (0.97, 1.36) 1.09 (0.89, 1.33) 2756 1622 (59.9) 0.98 (0.93, 1.03) 0.97 (0.93, 1.02)
 3 2312 651 (28.2) 1.30 (1.12, 1.52) 1.21 (1.00, 1.45) 8382 5375 (64.1) 1.07 (1.03, 1.11) 1.01 (0.97, 1.05)
 4 or 5 = High 219 69 (31.5) 1.46 (1.15, 1.85) 1.38 (1.05, 1.82) 1382 798 (57.7) 0.96 (0.91, 1.02) 0.98 (0.93, 1.04)
Primary care visits (annual avg)
 <1 1614 298 (18.5) Referent Referent 2546 1481 (58.2) Referent Referent
 1 to <2 2159 568 (26.3) 1.42 (1.26, 1.61) 1.32 (1.14, 1.53) 5950 3721 (62.5) 1.08 (1.03, 1.12) 1.06 (1.02, 1.10)
 2 to <3 789 254 (32.2) 1.74 (1.51, 2.01) 1.55 (1.30, 1.84) 3738 2387 (63.9) 1.10 (1.05, 1.14) 1.10 (1.05, 1.14)
 ≥3 415 146 (35.2) 1.91 (1.61, 2.25) 1.59 (1.30, 1.95) 2951 1752 (59.4) 1.02 (0.98, 1.07) 1.06 (1.02, 1.11)
Residence
 Rural 79 19 (24.1) 0.94 (0.64, 1.40) 1.11 (0.74, 1.65) 325 198 (60.9) 0.99 (0.91, 1.08) 1.04 (0.96, 1.13)
 Urban 4898 1247 (25.5) Referent Referent 14860 9143 (61.5) Referent Referent
Health plan
 Medicare 60 18 (30.0) 1.17 (0.79, 1.73) 1.11 (0.73, 1.69) 966 755 (78.2) 1.29 (1.25, 1.34) 1.06 (0.96, 1.17)
 Medicaid/Basic Hlth 83 19 (22.9) 0.89 (0.60, 1.33) 0.97 (0.66, 1.44) 326 168 (51.5) 0.85 (0.77, 0.95) 0.92 (0.84, 1.01)
 Commercial 4610 1180 (25.6) Referent Referent 13194 7969 (60.4) Referent Referent
 Private pay 224 49 (21.9) 0.85 (0.66, 1.10) 0.76 (0.54, 1.07) 699 449 (64.2) 1.06 (1.00, 1.13) 1.02 (0.97, 1.08)
Neighborhood income, median
 <$40,000 1138 287 (25.2) Referent Referent 2974 1439 (48.4) Referent Referent
 $40,000–<$60,000 2349 588 (25.0) 0.99 (0.88, 1.12) 1.00 (0.86, 1.16) 6953 4340 (62.4) 1.29 (1.24, 1.34) 1.20 (1.15, 1.25)
 $60,000–<$80,000 1088 263 (24.2) 0.96 (0.83, 1.11) 1.03 (0.86, 1.23) 3705 2444 (66.0) 1.36 (1.30, 1.42) 1.22 (1.17, 1.28)
 ≥$80,000 390 124 (31.8) 1.26 (1.06, 1.50) 1.24 (0.98, 1.56) 1512 1091 (72.2) 1.49 (1.42, 1.57) 1.29 (1.23, 1.37)
Neighborhood education, % with some college
 <50 % 471 135 (28.7) Referent Referent 1376 786 (57.1) Referent Referent
 50 % to <60 % 722 180 (24.9) 0.87 (0.72, 1.05) 0.92 (0.74, 1.15) 2251 1285 (57.1) 1.00 (0.94, 1.06) 0.95 (0.90, 1.01)
 60 % to <70 % 1290 321 (24.9) 0.87 (0.73, 1.03) 0.96 (0.78, 1.17) 3772 2251 (59.7) 1.04 (0.99, 1.10) 0.95 (0.90, 1.00)
 70 % to <80 % 1276 318 (24.9) 0.87 (0.73, 1.03) 0.90 (0.73, 1.11) 3938 2497 (63.4) 1.11 (1.05, 1.17) 0.96 (0.91, 1.01)
 ≥80 % 1205 308 (25.6) 0.89 (0.75, 1.06) 0.90 (0.72, 1.13) 3806 2494 (65.5) 1.15 (1.09, 1.21) 0.93 (0.88, 0.98)
  1. CVD risk factors include obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), tobacco use, diabetes and treated hypertension. RR relative risk, RUB Resource Utilization Band. Participant “*” was included with the 55–64 age group for regression model