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Table 1 Quality indicators selected for the study and content of the forms used for collecting data

From: A cross-sectional survey to investigate the quality of care in Tuscan (Italy) nursing homes: the structural, process and outcome indicators of nutritional care

Quality indicators Collected information
Form for collecting data on nutritional care at NHs level Form for collecting data on nutritional care at individual level Form for collecting data on case-mix at individual level
Structural indicators [13]:
type of scales used to weigh residents (if any) Type of scales used to weigh the residents (if any) Personal data (date of birth, gender) Length of stay in NH
employment of dietitians and type of consultation Type of nutrition screening tool applied (if any) and frequency of utilisation Number of hospital admissions during the 12 months before the day of the survey Severe dementia (Global Deterioration Scale) [23]
number of operators assigned to the administration of meals in a specific day Presence and use of protocols or guidelines for weight assessment Data used to calculate the MUST score (anthropometric data, unplanned weight loss in previous 3–6 months, whether the resident is acutely ill and whether there has been or is likely to be no nutritional intake for more than 5 days) Bedridden for almost 18 h/day
Process indicators [13]:
use of a nutrition screening tool Presence and use of protocols or guidelines for administration of food Feeding mode (enteral feeding, parenteral feeding, syringed-feeding, texture-modified diet) Physical impairment (Barthel Index, 100 = “completely dependent”) [24]
presence of protocols or guidelines for weight assessment Assessment of dysphagia If the subject is following a program to change his body weight Cognitive impairment (Pfeiffer test score) [25]
presence of protocols or guidelines for administration of food Employment of dietitians Number of own teeth and presence of dentures or removable bridges Mood and behaviour pattern, SOSIA form [26]
Assessment of dysphagia Number of operators assigned to administration of meals in a specific day Functional ability during eating, using the Eating Behaviour Scale [21] Communication, hearing and vision patterns, SVAMA schedule [27, 28]
   Semi-quantitative assessment of the amount of food consumed at lunch in the day of the survey, according to similar studies and contexts [22], with indications regarding the intake of complementary or substitute supplements, the causes of the partial consumption of lunch and the place in which the lunch was consumed  
Outcome indicators:
Prevalence of subjects with medium-high risk of malnutrition   Place where meals were consumed on the day of the survey (dining room or bedroom) Comorbidity, according to Disease Count (DC) [28]
   Presence of dysphagia (yes/no)