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Table 1 Patient characteristics (N = 3,784)

From: Emergency department and inpatient health care utilization among patients who require interpreter services

Characteristic IS Patients (n = 1,892) Non-IS Patients (n = 1,892) P Valuea
Age, median (IQR), y 51.0 (36.0-64.0) 51.0 (35.0-64.0) .95
Male sex, No. of patients (%) 718 (37.9) 821 (43.4) <.001
Race, No. of patients (%) <.001
American Indian or Alaska Native 12 (0.6) 4 (0.2)
Black 511 (27.0) 34 (1.8)
White 235 (12.4) 1,726 (91.2)
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 9 (0.5) 1 (0.1)
Asian 511 (27.0) 50 (2.6)
Other, unknown, or chose not to disclose 614 (32.5) 77 (4.1)
Ethnicity, No. of patients (%) <.001
Hispanic or Latino 259 (13.7) 29 (1.5)
Not Hispanic or Latino 1,325 (70.0) 1,698 (89.7)
Unknown or chose not to disclose 308 (16.3) 165 (8.7)
Marital status, No. of patients (%) <.001
Married or life partner 1,164 (61.5) 1,267 (67.0)
Divorced, single, widowed, separated, or unknown 728 (38.5) 625 (33.0)
Insurance <.001
Government 1,024 (54.1) 550 (29.1)
Non-Government 505 (26.7) 1,160 (61.3)
Unknown 363 (19.2) 182 (9.6)
Residency <.001
Rural 132 (7.0) 686 (36.3)
Urban 1,397 (73.8) 1,025 (54.1)
Unknown 363 (19.2) 181 (9.6)
Charlson Scoreb N = 1860 N = 1857 0.0009
0 1127 (60.6) 1235 (66.5)
1 366 (19.9) 307 (16.5)
2+ 367 (19.7) 315 (17.0)
Out-patient visits <0.0001
0–1 660 (34.9) 415 (21.9)
2–4 357 (18.9) 515 (27.2)
5–10 435 (23.0) 483 (25.5)
11+ 440 (23.3) 479 (25.3)
Emergency department visits, No. of patients (%) <.001
0 1,607 (84.9) 1,691 (89.4)
1 181 (9.6) 141 (7.5)
2 45 (2.4) 31 (1.6)
≥3 59 (3.1) 29 (1.5)
Hospitalizations, No. of patients (%) <.001
0 1,443 (76.3) 1,600 (84.6)  
1 300 (15.9) 220 (11.6)
2 80 (4.2) 42 (2.2)
≥3 69 (3.6) 30 (1.6)
  1. IQR interquartile range, IS interpreter services
  2. aχ2 Test for categorical variables and rank sum test for continuous variables
  3. bAvailable for a subset of the population (IS patients, n = 1,860; non-IS patients, n = 1,857)