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Table 3 Correlates of frequent ED utilization

From: Travel distances, socioeconomic characteristics, and health disparities in nonurgent and frequent use of Hospital Emergency Departments in South Carolina: a population-based observational study

  (1) (2) (3) (4)
Variables Log visits NE ≥ 0.75 Log visits PCT ≥ 0.75 Log visits PCP ≥ 0.75 Log visits EUA ≥ 0.75
Age     
≤1 0.00436 0.151** 0.0344** −0.0668**
  (0.00488) (0.00382) (0.00804) (0.00729)
1 – 17 0.0961** 0.0601** 0.107** −0.00123
  (0.00413) (0.00367) (0.00704) (0.00477)
18 – 34 0.260** 0.124** 0.148** 0.0933**
  (0.00388) (0.00352) (0.00682) (0.00365)
35 – 64 0.216** 0.118** 0.127** 0.0658**
  (0.00364) (0.00323) (0.00588) (0.00312)
Gender     
Female 0.101** 0.0317** −0.0272** −0.0152**
  (0.00146) (0.00130) (0.00299) (0.00173)
Race/Ethnicity     
African American 0.00992** 0.0262** 0.135** −0.0220**
  (0.00145) (0.00133) (0.00307) (0.00196)
Asian −0.147** −0.0755** −0.0311 −0.0570**
  (0.0119) (0.0109) (0.0262) (0.0147)
Native American −0.106** −0.0547** 0.0431 −0.0423
  (0.0172) (0.0149) (0.0373) (0.0240)
Hispanic −0.139** −0.0748** −0.0133 −0.0705**
  (0.00437) (0.00393) (0.0106) (0.00661)
Other race −0.134** −0.0741** −0.0117 −0.0711**
  (0.00502) (0.00463) (0.0119) (0.00689)
Expected source of payment     
Self-pay 0.0811** 0.0592** 0.0608** 0.0420**
  (0.00189) (0.00183) (0.00440) (0.00247)
Medicare 0.126** 0.0984** 0.0790** 0.0341**
  (0.00321) (0.00294) (0.00565) (0.00307)
Medicaid 0.162** 0.125** 0.112** 0.0697**
  (0.00211) (0.00189) (0.00436) (0.00319)
HMO −0.0187** −0.00775* 0.00207 0.00717
  (0.00390) (0.00378) (0.00858) (0.00427)
Other payer −0.00316 −0.00810* 0.0168* 0.00362
  (0.00357) (0.00356) (0.00812) (0.00419)
Average ED Distance −0.000727** −0.000781** −0.000831** 2.68e-05
  (4.94e-05) (4.89e-05) (0.000108) (5.11e-05)
Constant −0.0140** 0.0421** 0.0673** 0.0789**
  (0.00400) (0.00356) (0.00684) (0.00346)
Observations 539,376 441,688 121,310 176,652
R-squared 0.049 0.027 0.036 0.015
  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05