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Table 1 Coding scheme

From: Exploration of the content validity and feasibility of the EQ-5D-3L, ICECAP-O and ASCOT in older adults

Response issue Definition
Comprehension phase
Understanding the words
Odd wording Respondent indicates that he/she finds used terms or phrases odd or unusual
Difficult wording Respondent indicates that he/she is unfamiliar with terms or phrases or struggles with a complicated structure
Interpreting intended scope and meaning
Difficult interpretation of item Respondent expresses that he/she does not know or understands what is meant by the item
Wrong interpretation of item Respondent has something else in mind when interpreting the item than intended by the developers
Narrow interpretation of item Respondent focuses on one aspect of the construct or expresses insecurity about the focus of the item, where the intention of the developers is to cover a broad range of the construct (either due to double-barrelled items or broad multidimensional concepts)
Selecting and reporting answer phase
Different answers for different aspects of item Respondent expresses that different response options apply to different aspects of the construct (e.g. low physical control but high cognitive control) (and therefore has to choose to answer just one aspect or an average answer)
Response options partly applicable Respondent indicates that one part of the response option fits to his/her situation but the other part not
Irrelevant response option(s) Respondent indicates that it is impossible/unlikely that one of the response options will be chosen
Missing intermediate response option Respondent expresses that there is a gap between two consecutive response options
Similar response options Respondent indicates that in his/her perspective (the value of) response options is/are similar
Disagreement with order of response options Respondent expresses or shows that the order of the response options is not in agreement with his/her perspective
Positive responding Respondent chooses a more positive answer than what an outsider would, based on what is known by this outsider about the respondent’s life.
  1. Note. The categorization of codes in phases is based on Tourangeau’s model of the reponse process [17]