Skip to main content

Table 3 Factors associated with adherence to ART

From: Strengthening adherence to Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) monitoring and support: operation research to identify barriers and facilitators in Nepal

Variables Adherent (≥95%) Non Adherent (<95%) P-valuea
  n = 383 % n = 21 %  
Gender      
Male 198 51.7 12 57.1 0.454
Female 183 47.8 9 42.9  
Third gender 2 0.5 0 0.0  
Age      
<35 years 172 45 7 33.3 0.772
≥35 years 211 55 14 66.7  
Residence (according to region)
Eastern 34 8.9 3 14.3 0.116
Central 107 27.9 10 47.6  
Western 118 30.8 3 14.3  
Far western 110 28.7 5 23.8  
Mid western 14 3.7 0 0.0  
Caste (ethnicity)
Brahmin 44 11.5 3 14.3 0.560
Chettry 112 29.2 5 23.8  
Tharu 7 1.8 2 9.5  
Dalit 63 16.5 3 14.3  
Janjati 136 35.5 8 38.1  
Others 21 5.5 0 0.0  
Religion
Hindu 305 79.6 19 90.5 0.305
Buddhist 45 11.7 2 9.5  
Muslim 10 2.6 0 0.0  
Christian 20 5.3 0 0.0  
Others 3 0.8 0 0.0  
Marital status
Married 319 83.3 18 85.7 0.772
Un married 39 10.2 3 14.3  
Divorced 2 0.5 0 0.0  
Separated 11 2.9 0 0.0  
Others 12 3.1 0 0.0  
Education
Primary 67 17.5 8 38.1 0.018*
Lower secondary 60 15.7 5 23.8  
Secondary 63 16.4 3 14.3  
Higher secondary or higher 25 6.5 5 23.8  
Can’t read and write 105 27.4 0 0.0  
Read and write 63 16.4 0 0.0  
Family income source
Agriculture 163 42.6 8 38.1 0.707
Service 88 23.0 8 38.1  
Business 44 11.5 0 0.0  
Labour 49 12.8 4 19.0  
Others 39 10.2 1 4.8  
Family total income (NRs) /month #
<5000 181 47.3 8 38.1 0.337
5000-9999 123 32.1 4 19.0  
>10000 79 20.6 9 42.9  
Employment status
Employed 249 65.0 14 66.7 0.419
Unemployed 134 35.0 7 33.3  
Time to reach ART clinic
<30 minutes 107 27.9 9 42.9 0.936
30 minutes −1 hour 105 27.4 3 14.3  
1-2 hours 80 20.9 3 14.3  
>2 hours 91 23.8 6 28.6  
Alcohol habit
Never 356 93.0 19 90.5  
Once a month 10 2.6 0 0.0  
1-4 times a week 10 0.3 2 9.5  
Almost daily 4 1.0 0 0.0  
Daily 3 0.8 0 0.0  
Smoking habit
No 307 80.2 15 71.4 0.448
Yes 76 19.8 6 28.6  
Drug uses** habit
No 358 94.2 16 76.2 0.039*
Yes 25 5.8 5 23.8  
Disclosure of HIV status
Yes 305 79.6 13 61.9 0.180
No 78 20.4 8 38.1  
Infected duration
<1 year 78 20.4 4 19.0 0.283
1-4 years 218 56.9 9 42.9  
≥5 years 87 22.7 8 38.1  
Treatment duration
<1 year 153 39.9 8 38.1 0.480
1-4 years 216 56.4 11 52.4  
≥5 years 14 3.7 2 9.5  
Thought of leaving medication
No 341 89.0 16 76.2 0.180
Yes 42 11.0 5 23.8  
Environment of ART clinic
Very good 220 57.4 11 52.4 0.004*
Good 62 16.2 3 14.3  
Satisfactory 1 0.3 2 9.5  
Not good 100 26.1 5 23.8  
Medium of travel mode
Walking 48 12.5 2 9.5 0.898
Bus 258 67.4 15 71.4  
Own vehicle 21 5.5 0 0.0  
Rickshaw or Bicycle 49 12.8 4 19.0  
Others 7 1.8 0 0.0  
Satisfaction from ART clinic
Yes 366 95.6 21 100  
No 17 4.4 0 0.0  
  1. #1 Nepalese Rupees (NRs) = 0.0113770 USD (as of 3rd March 2013 from http://www.xe.com/currencyconverter/).
  2. *Significant P values on 95% CI.
  3. **drug use includes marijuana, injecting drug or other habitual drugs.
  4. aP values were calculated from chi square test.
  5. NRs: Nepalese Rupees.
  6. ART:Anti Retroviral Therapy.