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Table 4 Utilization and costs outcomes occurring over the 2-year follow-up period for the entire sample and based on the combined categories of timing and adherence of physical therapy

From: Implications of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs

  Early adherent (n = 17,175) Early non-adherent (n = 23,993) Delayed adherent (n = 13,742) Delayed non-adherent (n = 16,649)
Utilization outcomes     
Number of physical therapy visits (mean, sd) 6.3 (7.8) 15.8 (18.5) 6.0 (7.2) 13.9 (15.1)
Advanced imaging 12.8% 17.5% 22.2% 30.2%
Lumbar spinal injections 9.2% 11.1% 14.8% 17.6%
Lumbar spine surgery 2.1% 2.4% 3.3% 3.9%
Opioid medication use 60.4% 62.2% 71.1% 71.6%
Costs incurred over the 24 month period (mean, standard error)
  Prescription medication cost $905.79 (29.08) $1,281.43 (28.61) $862.57 (26.06) $1,167.58 (25.88)
Inpatient costs $10,510.57 (324.10) $10,547.58 (328.83) $13,075.45 (541.37) $12,352.16 (380.62)
Total LBP costs $1,914.26 (30.92) $2,232.00 (29.62) $3,067.57 (54.96) $3,456.39 (49.43)
Non‐LBP healthcare costs $8,787.95 (112.26) $8,866.12 (100.89) $9,906.42 (145.07) $9,576.34 (110.02)