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Table 2 Utilization and costs outcomes occurring over the 2-year follow-up period for the entire sample and based on the timing and adherence of physical therapy

From: Implications of early and guideline adherent physical therapy for low back pain on utilization and costs

  All patients (n = 753,450) PT users (n = 122,723) No PT Referral (n = 630,727) Physical therapy timing (n = 122,723) Physical therapy adherence (n = 71,559)
Early (n = 72,641) Delayed (n = 50,082) Adherent (n = 30,917) Non-Adherent (n = 40,642)
Utilization outcomes       
  Number of physical therapy visits (mean, sd) 1.2 (5.6) 7.1 (12.2) 0.0 (0.0) 7.3 (12.9) 6.8 (11.0) 6.2 (7.6) 15.0 (17.2)
  Advanced imaging 11.7% 15.6% 11.0% 11.9% 21.0% 17.0% 22.7%
Lumbar spinal injections 6.5% 11.1% 5.7% 8.7% 14.6% 11.7% 13.8%
Lumbar spine surgery 1.4% 2.5% 1.2% 1.9% 3.2% 2.6% 3.0%
Opioid medication use 62.9% 64.0% 62.7% 59.7% 70.3% 65.2% 66.0%
Costs incurred over the 24 month period (mean, standard error)     
  Prescription medications $1158.15 (4.45) $768.26 (9.19) $1,234.44 (5.01) $772.20 (13.00) $762.74 (12.44) $886.27 (19.82) $1233.90 (19.86)
Inpatient costs $10,958.82 (61.51) $11,816.72 (156.74) $10,780.45 (66.76) $11,089.39 (196.72) $12,840.89 (255.97) $11,639.95 (300.06) $11,292.57 (249.15)
Total LBP costs $1,217.80 (4.02) $2,318.88 (14.24) $1,003.56 (3.86) $1,828.24 (15.28) $3,030.53 (26.64) $2,426.88 (30.04) $2,733.57 (26.92)
Non‐LBP healthcare costs $8,281.37 (17.36) $9,099.91 (45.24) $8,122.11 (18.77) $8,687.25 (59.52) $9,698.47 (69.46) $9,285.09 (89.76) $9,157.06 (74.71)