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Table 8 Opioid utilization* in pre- and post-index 6-month periods and difference-in-difference comparison between pregabalin and duloxetine

From: A retrospective, matched cohort study of potential drug-drug interaction prevalence and opioid utilization in a diabetic peripheral neuropathy population initiated on pregabalin or duloxetine

  Long-acting opioids Short-acting less potent opioids Short-acting more potent opioids
  % % %
Pregabalin    
Pre-index 7.8 51.6 15.7
Post-index 10.1 53.8 17.5
Difference +2.2 +2.2 +1.8
Duloxetine    
Pre-index 7.0 49.6 16.6
Post-index 10.1 50.9 19.3
Difference +3.1 +1.3 +2.7
Difference-in-difference comparison** 2.2 versus 3.1 2.2 versus 1.3 1.8 versus 2.7
Statistical Difference** t = −1.08, p = 0.281 t = 0.23, p = 0.816 t = −0.28, p = 0.782
  1. *Defined as one or more opioid prescription fills during period.
  2. **Difference in Difference t-statistic derived from a generalized linear mixed model with a logit link and binary distribution adjusting for baseline demographics, Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index, and pre- and post-index non-opioid pain medication utilization.