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Table 5 Odds ratios 1 as measures of effect of immigration (continuous vs quintiles) on health indicator adjusted (or not) for material and social deprivation: multilevel logistic regression models

From: Neighbourhood immigration, health care utilization and outcomes in patients with diabetes living in the Montreal metropolitan area (Canada): a population health perspective

  Continuous immigration score Immigration quintiles
Health indicators Not adjusted for material & social deprivation scores Adjusted for material & social deprivation scores Not adjusted for material & social deprivation quintiles Adjusted for material & social deprivation quintiles
OR (95% CI)2 OR (95% CI)2 OR (95% CI)3 OR (95% CI)3
All-cause deaths 0.88 (0.78 – 0.99)* 0.89 (0.80 – 1.00) 0.90 (0.81 – 0.99)* 0.87 (0.78 – 0.96)*
All-cause hospitalizations 0.96 (0.91 – 1.00) 0.92 (0.87 – 0.97)* 0.97 (0.92 – 1.01) 0.93 (0.89 – 0.98)*
CVD events 0.82 (0.74 – 0.91)*** 0.79 (0.70 – 0.87)*** 0.86 (0.78 – 0.94)** 0.84 (0.77 – 0.93)**
ED frequent users (≥4) 1.51 (1.43 – 1.60)*** 1.43 (1.35 – 1.52)*** 1.38 (1.31 – 1.45)*** 1.28 (1.21 – 1.34)***
GP frequent users (≥20) 0.79 (0.74 – 0.83)*** 0.69 (0.65 – 0.73)*** 0.82 (0.78 – 0.86)*** 0.75 (0.71 – 0.79)***
MD specialists frequent users (≥5) 1.50 (1.41 – 1.60)*** 1.83 (1.73 – 1.94)*** 1.49 (1.41 – 1.58)*** 1.64 (1.55 – 1.73)***
Antidiabetic drugs 1.32 (1.20 – 1.43)*** 1.20 (1.11 – 1.32)*** 1.21 (1.12 – 1.31)*** 1.12 (1.03 – 1.22)**
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.001; ***p < 0.0001;
  2. 1Adjusted for age, sex, being an incident or prevalent diabetes case, having diabetes with complications, presence of comorbidities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, dementia, chronic pulmonary disease, renal disease, connective tissue disease, ulcer disease, mild liver disease, moderate to severe liver disease, any tumor, leukemia, lymphoma, metastatic tumor), and living in the urban core.
  3. 2OR are calculated using the coefficient obtained in the logistic regression (β) with a continuous immigration score. The OR presented here compares the 97.5th and the 2.5th percentile (reference group) of the immigration score.
  4. 3OR are calculated using the coefficient obtained in the logistic regression (β) with a categorical immigration score (quintiles). The OR presented here compares the 5th quintile and the 1st quintile (reference group) of the immigration score.