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Table 4 Description of the study cohort living in the CMA of Montreal (n = 111,556): outcomes and health care utilizations by immigration quintiles

From: Neighbourhood immigration, health care utilization and outcomes in patients with diabetes living in the Montreal metropolitan area (Canada): a population health perspective

     Immigration    Trend test **
Dependent variables TOTAL Q1 - Low Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 - High β (p - value)
TOTAL study cohort, n (%) 111,556 (100) 19,833 (17.8) 20,838 (18.7) 22,240 (19.9) 23,318 (20.9) 25,327 (22.7)
All-cause death, n (%) 6,453 (5.8) 1,172 (5.9) 1,205 (5.8) 1,364 (6.1) 1,352 (5.8) 1,360 (5.4) −0.021 (0.0203)
All-cause hospitalization, n (%) 35,928 (32.2) 6,370 (32.1) 6,711 (32.2) 7,304 (32.8) 7,605 (32.6) 7,938 (31.3) −0.006 (0.1635)
CVD event, n (%) 6,064 (5.4) 1,109 (5.6) 1,216 (5.8) 1,201 (5.4) 1,299 (5,6) 1,239 (4.9) −0.034 (0.0003)
ED frequent users (≥4), n (%) 29,247 (26.2) 4,617 (23.3) 5,049 (24.2) 5,844 (26.6) 6,443 (27.6) 7,294 (28.8) 0.075 (<.0001)
GP frequent users (≥20), n (%) 29,568 (26.5) 5,669 (28.6) 5,572 (26.7) 5,894 (26.5) 6,139 (26.3) 6,294 (24.8) −0.040 (<.0001)
MD specialists frequent users (≥5), n (%) 29,975 (26.9) 4,238 (21.4) 5,306 (25.5) 6,333 (28.5) 6,771 (29.0) 7,327 (28.9) 0.092 (<.0001)
Sub-cohort admissible to public drug plan, n (%) 71,620 (100) 11,169 (15.6) 12,058 (16.8) 13,894 (19.4) 15,669 (21.9) 18,830 (26.3)
Antidiabetic drugs, n (%) 61,395 (85.7) 9,462 (84.7) 10,247 (85.0) 11,749 (84.6) 13,429 (85.7) 16,508 (87.7) 0.059 (<.0001)
  1. **Logistic regression (binary variables) were used to model trends (+: increasing, −: decreasing) for each dependent variable (first column) over the quintiles of immigration.