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Table 3 Description of the study cohort living in the CMA of Montreal (n = 111,556): patient- and DA-level variables by immigration quintiles

From: Neighbourhood immigration, health care utilization and outcomes in patients with diabetes living in the Montreal metropolitan area (Canada): a population health perspective

     Immigration    Trend test**
Variables TOTAL Q1 - Low Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 - High β (p - value)
TOTAL study cohort, n (%) 111,556 (100) 19,833 (17.8) 20,838 (18.7) 22,240 (19.9) 23,318 (20.9) 25,327 (22.7)
Patient-level variables        
Average age (SD) 61.3 (13.1) 60.7 (12.9) 60.9 (13.0) 61.8 (13.1) 61.9 (13.3) 61.2 (13.3) 0.184 (<.0001)
Sex, n (%)        
 Women 54,305 (48.7) 9,266 (46.7) 9,853 (47.3) 10,847 (48.8) 11,581 (49.7) 12,758 (50.4) 0.039 (<.0001)
 Men 57,251 (51.3) 10,567 (53.3) 10,985 (52.7) 11,393 (51.2) 11,737 (50.3) 12,569 (49.6)
Incident diabetes cases, n (%) 30,621 (27.4) 5,286 (26.6) 5,742 (27.6) 6,226 (28.0) 6,520 (28.0) 6,847 (27.0) 0.005 (0.3353)
Diabetes with complications, n (%) 10,286 (9.2) 1,740 (8.8) 1,923 (9.2) 2,093 (9.4) 2,213 (9.5) 2,317 (9.2) 0.011 (0.1393)
Hypertension, n (%) 19,267 (17.3) 3,364 (17.0) 3,674 (17.6) 3,958 (17.8) 4,092 (17.6) 4,179 (16.5) −0.009 (0.1193)
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 8,821 (7.9) 19,833 (8.2) 1,795 (8.6) 1,803 (8.1) 1,786 (7.7) 1,801 (7.1) −0.046 (<.0001)
Dementia, n (%) 1,977 (1.8) 362 (1.8) 401 (1.9) 421 (1.9) 407 (1.8) 386 (1.5) −0.047 (0.0031)
Chronic pulmonary disease, n (%) 4,153 (3.7) 775 (3.9) 835 (4.0) 882 (4.0) 827 (3.6) 834 (3.3) −0.049 (<.0001)
Renal disease, n (%) 4,136 (3.7) 828 (4.2) 827 (4.0) 860 (3.9) 779 (3.3) 842 (3.3) −0.065 (<.0001)
Connective tissue disease or ulcer disease, n (%) 1,308 (1.2) 216 (1.1) 224 (1.1) 262 (1.2) 252 (1.1) 354 (1.4) 0.057 (0.0041)
Liver disease, n (%) 2,433 (2.2) 442 (2.2) 488 (2.3) 495 (2.2) 500 (2.1) 508 (2.0) −0.031 (0.0300)
Tumor (incl. leukemia, lymphoma, metastatic tumor), n (%) 5,510 (4.9) 1,009 (5.1) 1,065 (5.1) 1,172 (5.3) 1,112 (4.8) 1,152 (4.6) −0.032 (0.0012)
Neighbourhood (DA)-level variables        
Living in the urban core, n (%) 96,862 (86.8) 12,889 (65.0) 17,046 (81.8) 20,501 (92,2) 22,146 (95.0) 24,280 (95.9) 0.722 (<.0001)
Average material deprivation score (SD) 0.52 (1.82) 0.33 (1.66) 0.06 (1.78) 0.08 (1.84) 0.41 (1.75) 1.51 (1.60) 0.290 (<.0001)
Average social deprivation score (SD) 0.33 (1.89) 0.04 (2.04) 0.23 (2.08) 0.48 (2.03) 0.45 (1.86) 0.42 (1.44) 0.093 (<.0001)
  1. **Linear regressions (continuous variables) or logistic regressions (binary variables) were used to model trends (+: increasing, −: decreasing) for each observed variables (first column) over the quintiles of immigration.