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Table 5 Regression-adjusted cost differences during 12-month follow-up period between atypical and typical cohort (atypical vs. typical)

From: Health care resource utilization and direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia initiating treatment with atypical versus typical antipsychotics in Tianjin, China

Variable Before matching N = 1131 After matching N = 800
OLS GLM OLS GLM
Diff p-value Diff p-value Diff p-value Diff p-value
Total costs −229 0.091 −238 0.031 −161 0.329 −150 0.245
Medication costs 247 <0.001 242 <0.001 238 <0.001 234 <0.001
Antipsychotic medication 217 <0.001 235 <0.001 204 <0.001 229 <0.001
Concomitant medication 30 0.016 22 <0.001 21 0.052 16 <0.001
Other medication# 1 0.959 7 0.190 12 0.392 15 0.005
Medical costs −476 <0.001 −569 <0.001 −399 0.011 −450 <0.001
Costs of inpatient services ## −481 <0.001 −592 <0.001 −404 0.010 −555 <0.001
Non-medication treatment cost −315 <0.001 −401 <0.001 −269 0.004 −351 <0.001
Laboratory and diagnostic cost −136 <0.001 −158 <0.001 −113 0.002 −131 <0.001
Other inpatient services −30 0.324 −39 0.056 −22 0.532 −29 0.229
Costs of outpatient services 5 0.002 6 <0.001 5 <0.001 5 <0.001
  1. Regressions adjusted for baseline characteristics including demographics (age, gender and retired), mental comorbidities, concomitant medication, prior resource utilization and costs during baseline. Bold type indicates statistical significance.
  2. # Other medication corresponded to any other medication except antipsychotic and concomitant medication, which included antihypertension medication, hypoglycemic medication, antibiotics, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular drugs, digestive system drugs, respiratory system drugs, antineoplastic drugs, etc.
  3. ## Non-medication treatment costs corresponded to the costs of any other treatment except medication, which included nursing, monitoring, psychotherapy, behavior training and intervention, etc. Laboratory and diagnostic costs referred to the costs of physical examinations and biochemical tests. Costs of other medical services included blood transfusion, medical consumable, air conditioning and heating fees.