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Table 3 Direct medical costs for atypical and typical cohorts during 12-month follow-up period (in 2009 US$)

From: Health care resource utilization and direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia initiating treatment with atypical versus typical antipsychotics in Tianjin, China

Variable Before matching After matching
Atypical cohort N = 648 Typical cohort N = 483 Diff p-value Atypical cohort N = 400 Typical cohort N = 400 Diff p-value
Total costs 1661 (2224) 1892 (2465) −231 0.100 1711 (2240) 1868 (2450) −157 0.341
Medication costs 438 (626) 187 (337) 251 <0.001 409 (526) 172 (334) 237 <0.001
Antipsychotic medication 288 (431) 63 (216) 225 <0.001 268 (343) 64 (230) 204 <0.001
Concomitant medication 73 (266) 42 (98) 31 0.014 61 (194) 40 (99) 20 0.064
Other medication# 77 (197) 82 (213) −5 0.680 81 (207) 68 (189) 13 0.344
Medical costs 1223 (2058) 1704 (2344) −482 <0.001 1302 (2097) 1696 (2325) −394 0.011
Costs of inpatient services ## 1213 (2061) 1699 (2346) −486 <0.001 1292 (2099) 1692 (2327) −399 0.010
Non-medication treatment costs 667 (1186) 992 (1443) −325 <0.001 716 (1223) 977 (1422) −262 0.005
Laboratory and diagnostic cost 254 (456) 388 (548) −134 <0.001 278 (477) 393 (546) −115 0.001
Other inpatient services 292 (539) 319 (476) −27 0.384 299 (516) 321 (482) −22 0.528
Costs of outpatient services 10 (28) 5 (26) 5 0.004 9 (25) 4 (11) 5 <0.001
  1. Two-sample t-tests for unmatched samples and paired t-tests for matched samples. P-values in bold indicates statistical significance.
  2. # Other medication corresponded to any other medication except antipsychotic and concomitant medication, which included antihypertension medication, hypoglycemic medication, antibiotics, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular drugs, digestive system drugs, respiratory system drugs, antineoplastic drugs, etc.
  3. ## Non-medication treatment costs corresponded to the costs of any other treatment except medication, which included nursing, monitoring, psychotherapy, behavior training and intervention, etc. Laboratory and diagnostic costs referred to the costs of physical examinations and biochemical tests. Costs of other medical services included blood transfusion, medical consumable, air conditioning and heating fees.