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Table 2 Resource utilization and comorbidities for atypical and typical cohorts during 12-month follow-up period

From: Health care resource utilization and direct medical costs for patients with schizophrenia initiating treatment with atypical versus typical antipsychotics in Tianjin, China

Variable Before matching After matching
Atypical cohort N = 648 Typical cohortN = 483 p-value Atypical cohort N = 400 Typical cohort N = 400 p-value
Pharmacy resource utilization       
Use of antipsychotics [mean(SD)]       
Days on of all antipsychotics 139.1 (109.0) 143.7 (109.2) 0.483 143.2 (110.7) 143.9 (108.0) 0.938
Time to all-cause discontinuation 111.0 (117.8) 110.2 (114.0) 0.910 113.2 (117.0) 109.0 (111.8) 0.606
Use of concomitant medication [n(%)]       
Any use of anxiolytics 476 (73.5%) 412 (85.3%) <0.001 275 (68.8%) 342 (85.5%) <0.001
Any use of anticholinergics 216 (33.3%) 316 (65.4%) <0.001 143 (35.8%) 265 (66.3%) <0.001
Any use of antidepressants 147 (22.7%) 78 (16.2%) 0.006 80 (20.0%) 57 (14.3%) 0.028
Any use of sedative-hypnotics 256 (39.5%) 122 (25.3%) <0.001 163 (40.8%) 100 (25.0%) <0.001
Any use of mood stabilizers 78 (12.0%) 52 (10.8%) 0.507 47 (11.8%) 42 (10.5%) 0.569
Medical resource utilization #       
Any psychiatric hospitalization [n(%)] 297 (45.8%) 274 (56.7%) <0.001 192 (48.0%) 231 (57.8%) 0.002
The number of psychiatric hospitalizations [mean(SD)] 1.65 (0.76) 1.72 (0.81) 0.291 1.65 (0.76) 1.71 (0.83) 0.487
Length of stay per hospitalization [mean(SD)] 85.6 (84.7) 94.8 (84.2) 0.094 88.3 (86.9) 92.9 (82.9) 0.473
Any psychiatric outpatient visit [n(%)] 519 (80.1%) 318 (65.8%) <0.001 310 (77.5%) 261 (65.3%) <0.001
The number of psychiatric outpatient visits [mean(SD)] 7.95 (7.26) 6.96 (6.25) 0.044 7.71 (6.89) 6.52 (5.70) 0.027
Mental comorbidities       
Mean number of mental comorbidities [mean(SD)] 0.72 (0.92) 0.54 (0.84) <0.001 0.64 (0.87) 0.49 (0.80) 0.012
Specific mental comorbidities ## [n(%)]       
Sleep disorder 131 (20.2%) 84 (17.4%) 0.231 70 (17.5%) 63 (15.8%) 0.514
Unspecified mental disorder 112 (17.3%) 75 (15.5%) 0.432 63 (15.8%) 59 (14.8%) 0.700
Depression 110 (17.0%) 52 (10.8%) 0.003 57 (14.3%) 39 (9.8%) 0.052
Anxiety disorder 77 (11.9%) 37 (7.7%) 0.020 42 (10.5%) 27 (6.8%) 0.063
Other psychotic disorder 35 (5.4%) 13 (2.7%) 0.025 23 (5.8%) 7 (1.8%) 0.004
  1. Continuous variables were compared using two-sample t-tests for unmatched samples and paired t-tests for matched samples; categorical variables were compared using chi-square tests for unmatched samples and McNemar’s tests for matched samples. P-values in bold indicates statistical significance.
  2. # The number of psychiatric hospitalizations/length of stay per hospitalization was only for patients who had psychiatric hospitalizations during follow-up period, and the number of psychiatric outpatient visits was only for patients who had psychiatric outpatient visits during follow-up period.
  3. ## Unspecified mental disorder (ICD-10: F99) corresponded to mental disorder which was not otherwise specified across ICD-10: F00-98. Other psychotic disorder corresponded to any other mental disorders (ICD-10: F00-99) except sleep disorder, unspecified mental disorder, depression and anxiety disorder, which included dementia, mania, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorders, disorders of adult personality and behavior, mental retardation, etc.