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Table 2 Distribution of responses to ABQ-items*

From: Validation of the Adherence Barriers Questionnaire – an instrument for identifying potential risk factors associated with medication-related non-adherence

Item Mean Median SD Skewness
Item 1: “I fully understand what my doctor, nurse or the people at my pharmacy have explained to me so far”.+ 1.58 1.00 0.700 1.082
Item 2: „I can mention the names of my medicines and their scope without hesitation”.+ 2.33 2.00 0.975 0.149
Item 3: „I trust my doctor and agree to my therapy plan together with him”.+ 1.28 1.00 0.512 1.846
Item 4: “My medications help me only if I take them absolutely regularly as recommended”.+ 1.27 1.00 0.512 1.961
Item 5: „Medicines are all poisonous. You should avoid taking medicines at all if possible”. 1.82 2.00 0.902 0.849
Item 6: „I feel basically healthy. Therefore I am sometimes unsure whether I really have to take my medicines daily”. 1.79 2.00 0.869 0.971
Item 7: „I take my medicines every day automatically at a fixed time or on fixed occasions”.+ 1.36 1.00 0.609 1.847
Item 8: „I feel that co-payments for medicines are a great burden”. 2.66 3.00 1.059 −0.135
Item 9: „I frequently forget things on an everyday basis”. 2.32 2.00 0.906 0.435
Item 10: „Generally I often feel bad, and sometimes I feel discouraged and depressed.” 2.24 2.00 0.908 0.329
Item 11: „I frequently have problems taking my medications or it is difficult for me to keep me on the accompanying conditions of the medication intake”. 1.73 1.50 0.902 1.184
Item 12: „I have to overcome obstacles to my healthcare”. 2.03 2.00 1.120 0.678
Item 13: „I really would need help on an everyday basis (and particularly related to my treatment with medicines). But I do not get any help”. 1.55 1.00 0.855 1.565
Item 14: „I am really frightened of the side effects of my medicines.” 1.91 2.00 0.854 0.797
Item 15a: „In case I already noticed or in case I would notice side effects related to my medicines: I have talked or would talk to my doctor about them as soon as possible”.+ 1.28 1.00 0.605 2.543
Item 15b: „In case I already noticed or in case I would notice side effects related to my medicines: I have stopped/would stop my medications or took/would take less of them”. 1.80 1.50 0.976 1.005
  1. *Questionnaire was applied in German; translation into English has been done by the authors; score per item 1–4; n = 432 patients/respondents.
  2. +This item was reverse coded.
  3. Bold numbers represent maximum/minimum values.
  4. ABQ: Adherence Barriers Questionnaire, SD: Standard Deviation.