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Table 1 Characteristics of the patient samples

From: Validation of the Adherence Barriers Questionnaire – an instrument for identifying potential risk factors associated with medication-related non-adherence

Variables All AF patients in the ACT-AF study AF patients participating in the survey AF patients having completed the ABQ questionnaire without any data gaps AF patients having completed both the ABQ and the modified ARMS scale AF patients with complete ABQ data, who received VKA treatment and with at least 2 INR values available
N 786 570 432 401 371
Average age in years 73.17 (SD: 9.24) 73.08 (SD: 9.12) 72.74 (SD: 9.34) 73.09 (SD: 8.73) 72.79 (SD: 8.92)
Female gender 360 (45.8%) 264 (46.3%) 197 (45.6%) 178 (44.4%) 162 (43.7%)
Ø CHA2DS2-VASc score+ 3.76 (SD: 1.63) 3.86 (SD: 1.62) 3.84 (SD: 1.66) 3.89 (SD: 1.63) 3.82 (SD: 1.64)
Ø Duration since first AF diagnosis in years 6.25 (SD: 5.43) 6.59 (SD: 5.83) 6.59 (SD: 5.83) 6.80 (SD: 5.73) 6.60 (SD: 5.34)
Average number of prescribed long-term medications as reported by treating physicians 6.33 (SD: 2.65) 6.32 (SD: 2.62) 6.62 (SD: 5.55) 6.30 (SD: 2.58) 6.25 (SD: 2.55)
Living arrangements           
 Living alone 240 (30.5%) 167 (29.3%) 125 (28.9%) 114 (28.4%) 105 (28.3%)
 Living with a partner 530 (67.4%) 392 (68.8%) 299 (69.2%) 279 (69.6%) 260 (70.1%)
 Living in a care home 16 (2.1%) 11 (1.9%) 8 (1.9%) 8 (2.0%) 6 (1.6%)
Education level           
 University degree 58 (7.4%) 41 (7.2%) 28 (6.5%) 25 (6.2%) 24 (6.5%)
 Apprenticeship 600 (76.3%) 440 (77.2%) 333 (77.1%) 312 (77.8%) 286 (77.1%)
 Without apprenticeship 128 (16.3%) 89 (15.6%) 71 (16.4%) 64 (16.0%) 61 (16.4%)
Employment status           
 Employed 58 (7.4%) 37 (6.5%) 31 (7.2%) 27 (6.7%) 29 (7.8%)
 Unemployed 8 (1.0%) 9 (1.6%) 9 (2.1%) 8 (2.0%) 6 (1.6%)
 Pensioner 710 (90.3%) 517 (90.7%) 385 (89.1%) 361 (90.0%) 329 (88.7%)
 Other 10 (1.3%) 7 (1.2%) 7 (1.6%) 5 (1.2%) 7 (1.9%)
Cognitive impairment 65 (8.3%) 56 (9.8%) 39 (9.0%) 36 (9.0%) 31 (8.4%)
Hypertonia 655 (83.3%) 485 (85.1%) 362 (83.8%) 341 (85.0%) 314 (84.6%)
Diabetes mellitus type ½ 274 (34.9%) 56 (37.9%) 166 (38.4%) 157 (39.2%) 147 (39.6%)
Dementia 54 (6.9%) 44 (7.7%) 34 (7.9%) 31 (7.7%) 26 (7.0%)
Depression 126 (16.0%) 98 (17.2%) 74 (17.1%) 65 (16.2%) 60 (16.2%)
Mental illness 63 (8.0%) 51 (8.9%) 40 (9.3%) 37 (9.2%) 31 (8.4%)
Cancer 84 (10.7%) 63 (11.1%) 46 (10.6%) 44 (11.0%) 43 (11.6%)
  1. + stroke risk factors (C = “Congestive heart failure” - 1 score point; H = “Hypertension” - 1 score point; A = Age ≥ 75 -2 score points; D = “Diabetes mellitus” - 1 score point; S = “Stroke/TIA” - 2 score points; V = Vascular disease - 1 score point; A = Age: 65–74 - 1 score point; S = “Sex category: female” - 1 score point).
  2. AF: Atrial Fibrillation, ACT-AF: Ambulant Care and Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, ABQ: Adherence Barriers Questionnaire, ARMS: Adherence to Refills and Medications scale, INR: International Normalized Ratio.