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Table 2 Access to HIV testing and counseling among key populations

From: HIV service delivery models towards ‘Zero AIDS-related Deaths’: a collaborative case study of 6 Asia and Pacific countries

  Cambodia Myanmar Nepal PNG Thailand Vietnam
Service availability       
Geographical areas of out-reach services* 46 districts for FSWs, 33 districts for MSM, 1 city for PWID (Districts covered by NGOs for PWID and FSWs) (For PWID, FSWs, MSM, TG and migrants) National Capital District and Madang. All districts More than half of total districts for PWID and FSWs.
Total no. of VCT sites* 246 480 204 411 1316 272
Provinces with VCT sites* 24/24 provinces 14/14 provinces 14/14 zones 20/20 provinces 76/76 provinces 63/63 provinces
Districts with VCT sites* 77/77 districts 212/325 townships 75/75 districts 89/89 districts 878/878 districts 175/697 districts
VCT sites at lower than district (township) level* 166/997 health centers Few Few 121 Few Few
Districts with VCT sites (%)* 100 (77/77 districts) 65 (212/325 townships) 100 (75/75 districts) 100 (89/89 districts) 100 (878/878 districts) 25 (175/697 districts)
Linking approach       
Approaches to accelerate access to testing and counseling and referrals to care among key populations* −Peer educators refer key populations to VCT −Peer educators refer key populations to VCT −Peer educators refer key populations to VCT −Peer educators refer key populations to VCT −Peer educators refer key populations to VCT −Peer educators refer key populations to VCT.
−OST sites refer PWID to VCT −OST sites refer PWID to VCT −OST sites and drug treatment and rehabilitation centers refer PWID to VCT   −OST sites refer PWID to VCT −OST sites refer PWID to VCT
−On-site HIV testing initiated in hot spots for FSWs and MSM −Drop-in centers refer key populations to VCT −Drop-in centers refer key populations to VCT   −Drop-in centers refer key populations to VCT. −Drop-in centers refer key populations to VCT
Performance monitoring       
HIV testing coverage among key populations (%)**       
FSW 81.5 (2010) 71.1 (2008) 54.6 (2011) 46.4 (2010) 50.4 (2010) 43.8 (2011)
MSM 34.0 (2010) 47.6 (2009) 42.0 (2009) 55.8 (2010) 29.2 (2010) 30.2 (2011)
PWID 35.3 (2007) 27.3 (2008) 21.4 (2011) Not available 40.8 (2010) 29.1 (2011)
  1. Source: *National HIV programs of 6 countries as of 2010, **AIDS Progress Report 2012 of Cambodia [19], Myanmar [20], Nepal [21], PNG [22], Thailand [23], Vietnam [24].
  2. Remark: Province refers to the health administration, one level higher than so called district. District refers to the health administration level with the first referral-hospital (Operational district in Cambodia, Township in Myanmar, District in Nepal, PNG, Thailand, and Vietnam).
  3. FSW: Female sex worker, MSM: Men having sex with men, PWID: People who inject drugs, TG: Transgender persons, OST: Opioid substitution therapy, VCT: Voluntary testing and counselling, CHBC: Community- and home-based care.