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Table 2 Summary of key elements of the 13 primary health care initiatives

From: Limited evidence to assess the impact of primary health care system or service level attributes on health outcomes of Indigenous people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review

First author, year published, country Intervention level Governance Setting(s) Location Delivery Result reported Method qualitya Health outcomeb
Bailie et al. 2004 [20] HS Shared PHC Remote Clinic HbA1c 7/9 Unchanged
Australia
Bailie et al. 2007 [21] CS Shared PHC Remote Clinic HbA1c 6/9 Improved
Australia
Roubideaux et al. 2008 [23] HS Shared PHC, Hospitals Urban & rural Clinic HbA1c 6/9 Unchanged
US
Wilson et al. 2005 [22] HS Shared PHC, Tribal Clinics, Hospitals Remote & regional Clinic HbA1c 8/9 Improved
US
Kenealy et al. 2010 [26] HS Private & CC GPs Urban & rural Clinic HbA1c 6/9 Improved
NZ
Smith et al. 2011 [27] HS Govt. GPs Urban Clinic HbA1c 8/8 Unchanged
NZ
Simmons et al. 2003 [28] CS CC PHC Rural Clinic HbA1c 5/9 Improved
Australia
Schraer et.al. 2003 [25] CS Shared Specialist referral service, PHC Remote & regional Out-reach Amputation incidence 8/9 Improved
US
Ramesh et al. 2008 [24] CS Shared Specialist referral service, PHC Remote & regional Out-reach HbA1c 8/8 Improved
US
Virani et al. 2006 [32] CS CC Mobile van Remote & rural Out-reach HbA1c 4/9 Unchanged
Canada
McDermott et al. 2001 [29] CS Govt. PHC’s Remote Clinic HbA1C 5/9 Unchanged
Australia % hospitalised   Improved
% hosp. episodes   Improved
Tobe et al. 2006 [30] SP CC Community Remote Home visits HbA1c 7/9 Unchanged
Canada
Ralph-Campbell et al. 2006 [31] SP Govt. PHCs Regional centres in rural areas Out-reach HbA1c 6/9 Unchanged
Canada
  1. aNumber of quality criteria met compared to total number of criteria.
  2. bOutcome is reported as unchanged if the p value is insignificant, see results Table 3.
  3. HS – health system; CS – clinical system; SP – service program; Shared – both government and community control; CC – community control; Govt. – government; PHC – primary health care service.