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Table 1 Theoretical approaches to welfare mix: definitions and key variables

From: A framework to assess welfare mix and service provision models in health care and social welfare: case studies of two prominent Italian regions

Approach Authors Welfare mix definition and features Variables used to investigate welfare mix
Welfare provision Esping Andersen 1999 [23]; Vogel 1999 [20]; Powell and Barrientos 2004 [22]; Dahlberg 2005 [21]. Welfare mix concept is applied only to the supply and production of welfare services: Nature and geography of providers”
- Mixed market theories;
- Different industrial models and features of services delivery forms are used to describe welfare regimes;
- Reasons leading private actors to enter some public markets are also investigated.
Regulation and Governance Goodin and Rein 2001 [32]; Ascoli e Ranci 2003 [25]; Barr 2004 [22]; Bode 2006 [33]; Theobald 2012 [26]. Welfare mix is defined as a network in which welfare is providing by combining funding, production, delivery and regulation of supply and demand. In addition, institutional frameworks and governance procedures are considered. Nature and geography of providers”
Governance rules“Resources”
Services features and standards”
Norms, values and relationships Evers and Laville 2004 [27]; Zimmer 2000 [28]; Borgonovi 2002 [29]; Pavolini 2003 [30]. Welfare mix is defined as moving from norms and values that generate welfare participation. It is also investigated considering relationships and interactions among different actors as well as decision-making processes and participation mechanisms. Policy definition and values”