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Table 3 Results of a negative binomial regression of clinical and demographic risk factors for the number of ED presentations in a prospective cohort study in western Sydney, Australia (over 24 months)

From: Demographic and clinical predictors of unplanned hospital utilisation among chronically ill patients: a prospective cohort study

   Number of emergency department presentations
 Risk factor Reference vs. comparison Univariate rate ratio (95% CI) Univariate p-value Multivariate rate ratio (95% CI) Multivariate p-value*
Age Per 10 years 0.82 (0.73-0.91) 0.0002 0.96 (0.86-1.07) 0.475
Sex Male vs. Female 0.96 (0.74-1.25) 0.781 1.31 (1.02-1.66) 0.0329
Marital Status Married vs. Divorced 2.82 (1.98-4.02) <0.0001 1.55 (1.12-2.16) 0.0179
  Married vs. Single/Widow 1.04 (0.79-1.38)   1.00 (0.77-1.30)  
Home Language English vs. Other 0.96 (0.57-1.64) 0.891   
English Literacy No vs. Yes 1.28 (0.95-1.70) 0.106   
Carer Status No Carer vs. Visiting Carer 1.74 (1.23-2.45) 0.0040 1.28 (0.92-1.76) <0.0001
  No Carer vs. Live-In 1.62 (1.18-2.23)   1.88 (1.41-2.51)  
Social Isolation No vs. Yes 1.06 (0.79-1.43) 0.677   
Source of Transport Own Car vs. Carer 1.10 (0.82-1.47) 0.0105   
  Own Car vs. Public 1.72 (1.19-2.48)    
Employment Status Retired vs. Work/Study 1.87 (1.33-2.62) 0.0002   
Education Level Primary vs. Secondary 0.84 (0.63-1.13) 0.360   
  Primary vs. Tertiary 0.72 (0.38-1.34)    
Body Mass Index Normal vs. Underweight 1.27 (0.65-2.48) 0.420   
  Normal vs. Overweight 1.18 (0.81-1.72)    
  Normal vs. Obese 1.40 (0.99-1.98)    
Smoking Status Never vs. Former 1.34 (1.01-1.78) 0.0423   
  Never vs. Current 1.74 (1.04-2.92)    
Alcohol Consumption No vs. Yes 1.41 (1.05-1.89) 0.0197   
Falls History No vs. Yes 1.01 (0.77-1.34) 0.917   
Visual Impairment No vs. Yes 1.07 (0.80-1.42) 0.643   
Hearing Impairment No vs. Yes 0.69 (0.53-0.90) 0.0064   
Comorbidity Heart Disease No vs. Yes 0.97 (0.73-1.30) 0.838   
  Respiratory No vs. Yes 1.07 (0.83-1.39) 0.614   
  Diabetes No vs. Yes 1.62 (1.24-2.12) 0.0003   
  Current Cancer No vs. Yes 1.13 (0.67-1.90) 0.638   
  Dementia No vs. Yes 1.04 (0.20-5.32) 0.962   
  Musculoskeletal No vs. Yes 0.57 (0.44-0.74) <0.0001 0.71 (0.56-0.90) 0.0046
Prior ED Presentations Per Presentation 1.07 (1.04-1.11) <0.0001 1.06 (1.03-1.08) <0.0001
Prior Admissions Per Admission 1.11 (1.07-1.15) <0.0001   
  1. *All multivariate models are also adjusted for treatment group.