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Table 2 Results of a negative binomial regression of clinical and demographic risk factors for the number of hospital admissions in a prospective cohort study in western Sydney, Australia (over 24 months)

From: Demographic and clinical predictors of unplanned hospital utilisation among chronically ill patients: a prospective cohort study

   Number of hospital admissions
 Risk factor Reference vs. comparison Univariate rate ratio (95% CI) Univariate p-value Multivariate rate ratio (95% CI) Multivariate p-value*
Age Per 10 years 0.90 (0.81-1.00) 0.053 0.93 (0.84-1.04) 0.194
Sex Male vs. Female 1.11 (0.87-1.43) 0.400 1.30 (1.03-1.65) 0.0289
Marital Status Married vs. Divorced 1.90 (1.33-2.70) 0.0006   
  Married vs. Single/Widow 1.01 (0.77-1.32)    
Home Language English vs. Other 1.05 (0.63-1.74) 0.656   
English Literacy No vs. Yes 1.10 (0.83-1.45) 0.516   
Carer Status No Carer vs. Visiting Carer 1.47 (1.05-2.05) 0.0023 1.57 (1.13-2.19) <0.0001
  No Carer vs. Live-In 1.75 (1.29-2.39)   2.16 (1.61-2.92)  
Social Isolation No vs. Yes 1.28 (0.97-1.70) 0.083   
Source of Transport Own Car vs. Carer 1.14 (0.86-1.51) 0.560   
  Own Car vs. Public 1.18 (0.82-1.69)    
Employment Status Retired vs. Work/Study 1.26 (0.90-1.77) 0.170   
Education Level Primary vs. Secondary 1.03 (0.77-1.37) 0.911   
  Primary vs. Tertiary 0.90 (0.49-1.63)    
Body Mass Index Normal vs. Underweight 1.13 (0.59-2.16) 0.584   
  Normal vs. Overweight 1.06 (0.74-1.53)    
  Normal vs. Obese 1.06 (0.75-1.48)    
Smoking Status Never vs. Former 1.28 (0.98-1.69) 0.0406   
  Never vs. Current 1.78 (1.09-2.92)    
Alcohol Consumption No vs. Yes 1.09 (0.81-1.45) 0.571   
Falls History No vs. Yes 1.13 (0.87-1.48) 0.352   
Visual Impairment No vs. Yes 0.89 (0.68-1.16) 0.383   
Hearing Impairment No vs. Yes 0.85 (0.66-1.10) 0.212   
Comorbidity Heart Disease No vs. Yes 1.00 (0.76-1.32) 0.994   
  Respiratory No vs. Yes 1.39 (1.09-1.78) 0.0086 1.54 (1.23-1.94) 0.0002
  Diabetes No vs. Yes 1.30 (0.99-1.68) 0.050   
  Current Cancer No vs. Yes 1.28 (0.77-2.11) 0.336   
  Dementia No vs. Yes 1.40 (0.30-6.58) 0.662   
  Musculoskeletal No vs. Yes 0.69 (0.59-0.84) 0.0039 0.70 (0.55-0.89) 0.0039
Prior ED Presentations Per Presentation 1.06 (1.03-1.10) <0.0001   
Prior Admissions Per Admission 1.11 (1.06-1.16) <0.0001 1.09 (1.05-1.13) <0.0001
  1. *All multivariate models are also adjusted for treatment group.