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Table 1 List of variables and corresponding descriptive statistics, India, 2007-08

From: Inefficiency, heterogeneity and spillover effects in maternal care in India: a spatial stochastic frontier analysis

Variable: Descriptive statistics
Description Type Code Mean Standard deviation
Institutional delivery rate (%) Output Y 50.34 23.70
Number of facilities per 1000 sq km Input x 1 0.016 0.023
Facilities having Medical Officer/Obstetrician/Gynecologist (%) Input x 2 28.62 20.82
Facilities received untied funding in previous financial year (%) Input x 3 74.87 22.54
Facilities with selected basic amenities (%) Input x 4 35.01 17.03
Population in lowest wealth quintile (%) Exogenous z 1 18.92 17.33
Population residing in urban areas (%) Exogenous z 2 25.25 17.55
Population literate age 7+ years (%) Exogenous z 3 70.63 10.56
Districts in ‘backward state’ (%) Heterogeneity H 1 41.58 49.33
Number of districts covered* 499
Contiguity-matrix used for creating lag variables**
  Total links (number)     3222
  Minimum links (number)     0
  Average links (number)     5.42
  Maximum links (number)     10
  1. Note: *Total number differs from those reported in DHLS – 3 because ours is restricted only to districts with complete information on all variables needed for the analysis in the paper. See the Chorpleth map in Figures 1 and 2 for districts with missing data. **The matrix was based on publically available ‘shape (or co-ordinates) file containing the polygon information for each district in the country.