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Table 2 Patient background (n = 430)

From: A comparison of estimated drug costs of potentially inappropriate medications between older patients receiving nurse home visit services and patients receiving pharmacist home visit services: a cross-sectional and propensity score analysis

   Before propensity score weighted adjustment After propensity score weighted adjustment
  All patients Using nurse home visit programs Using pharmacist home visit programs Using nurse home visit programs (weighted by PS for nurse) Using pharmacist home visit programs (weighted by PS for pharmacist)
  (n = 430);n (%) Patients who used nurse home visit programs (n = 203); n (%) Patients who did not used nurse home visit programs (n = 227); n (%) P-value Patients who used pharmacist home visit programs (n = 182); n (%) Patients who did not used pharmacist home visit programs (n = 248); n (%) P-value Patients who used nurse home visit programs (%) Patients who did not used nurse home visit programs (%) P-value Patients who used pharmacist home visit programs (%) Patients who did not used pharmacist home visit programs (%) P-value
Gender     0.013    0.073    0.924    0.950
Male 154 (35.8%) 85 (41.9%) 69 (30.4%)   74 (40.7%) 80 (32.3%)   (34.3%) (34.0%)   (35.6%) (35.4%)  
Female 276 (64.2%) 118 (58.1%) 158 (69.6%)   108 (59.3%) 168 (67.7%)   (65.7%) (66.0%)   (64.4%) (64.6%)  
Mean age (years ± standard deviation) 85.0 ± 8.3 84.3 ± 8.6 85.7 ± 8.0 0.07 84.7 ± 8.1 85.2 ± 8.4 0.523 85.5 ± 8.5 84.9 ± 8.1 0.298 85.3 ± 8.3 85.0 ± 8.2 0.575
Age (years)     0.004    0.177    0.909    0.976
65-74 55 (12.8%) 29 (14.3%) 26 (11.5%)   22 (12.1%) 33 (13.3%)   (12.0%) (12.1%)   (12.9%) (12.4%)  
75-84 126 (29.3%) 73 (36.0%) 53 (23.3%)   62 (34.1%) 64 (25.8%)   (30.6%) (31.9%)   (28.8%) (29.0%)  
≥85 249 (57.9%) 101 (49.8%) 148 (65.2%)   98 (53.8%) 151 (60.9%)   (56.0%) (56.0%)   (58.3%) (58.5%)  
Independent ambulation 199 (46.3%) 71 (35.0%) 128 (56.4%) <0.001 91 (50.0%) 108 (43.5%) 0.185 (45.3%) (45.6%) 0.925 (45.9%) (46.1%) 0.934
Independent drug overview 115 (26.7%) 44 (21.7%) 71 (31.3%) 0.025 54 (29.7%) 61 (24.6%) 0.24 (22.8%) (24.8%) 0.482 (27.4%) (26.7%) 0.812
Living with family 381 (88.6%) 190 (93.6%) 191 (84.1%) 0.002 155 (85.2%) 226 (91.1%) 0.054 (87.3%) (88.4%) 0.626 (88.7%) (88.1%) 0.774
Using home visit programs by nurse 203 (47.2%) - - - 78 (42.9%) 125 (50.4%) 0.121 - - - (47.7%) (47.1%) 0.855
Using home visit programs by pharmacist 182 (42.3%) 78 (38.4%) 104 (45.8%) 0.121 - - - (41.5%) (42.2%) 0.844 - - -
Underlying medical conditions              
Constipation 243 (56.5%) 113 (55.7%) 130 (57.3%) 0.738 115 (63.2%) 128 (51.6%) 0.017 59.6% 59.4% 0.955 55.4% 56.2% 0.818
Hypertension 228 (53.0%) 84 (41.4%) 144 (63.4%) <0.001 101 (55.5%) 127 (51.2%) 0.379 49.5% 51.8% 0.513 52.8% 53.2% 0.907
Dementia 218 (50.7%) 87 (42.9%) 131 (57.7%) 0.002 89 (48.9%) 129 (52.0%) 0.523 52.5% 54.2% 0.601 50.9% 51.5% 0.860
Cerebral infarction/transient ischemic attack 104 (24.2%) 45 (22.2%) 59 (26.0%) 0.355 44 (24.2%) 60 (24.2%) 0.997 26.8% 24.5% 0.456 24.7% 25.1% 0.906
Osteoporosis 95 (22.1%) 38 (18.7%) 57 (25.1%) 0.111 47 (25.8%) 48 (19.4%) 0.11 26.0% 22.9% 0.299 22.1% 22.5% 0.898
Diabetes mellitus 82 (19.1%) 33 (16.3%) 49 (21.6%) 0.16 43 (23.6%) 39 (15.7%) 0.039 20.2% 19.1% 0.691 19.2% 19.7% 0.852
Coronary artery disease 59 (13.7%) 27 (13.3%) 32 (14.1%) 0.811 28 (15.4%) 31 (12.5%) 0.39 13.3% 15.3% 0.410 11.8% 13.1% 0.544
Atrial fibrillation 55 (12.8)% 29 (14.3%) 26 (11.5%) 0.38 27 (14.8%) 28 (11.3%) 0.277 12.9% 12.3% 0.776 12.7% 12.2% 0.816
Dyslipidemia 51 (11.9%) 17 (8.4%) 34 (15.0%) 0.034 27 (14.8%) 24 (9.7%) 0.102 9.9% 11.8% 0.358 12.2% 12.6% 0.847
Benign prostatic hypertrophy 47 (10.9%) 24 (11.8%) 23 (10.1%) 0.575 22 (12.1%) 25 (10.1%) 0.51 10.1% 11.6% 0.485 9.9% 10.8% 0.685
Progressive malignancy 34 (7.9%) 23 (11.3%) 11 (4.8%) 0.013 14 (7.7%) 20 (8.1%) 0.888 7.5% 7.1% 0.807 7.2% 7.7% 0.751
Hyperuricemia/gout 32 (7.4%) 9 (4.4%) 23 (10.1%) 0.025 19 (10.4%) 13 (5.2%) 0.042 9.2% 7.8% 0.473 8.1% 8.2% 0.951
Heart failure 30 (7.0%) 17 (8.4%) 13 (5.7%) 0.282 14 (7.7%) 16 (6.5%) 0.618 5.0% 7.3% 0.163 6.2% 5.9% 0.815
Parkinson's Disease/Parkinson's syndrome 28 (6.5%) 14 (6.9%) 14 (6.2%) 0.76 13 (7.1%) 15 (6.0%) 0.649 7.5% 7.8% 0.866 6.2% 6.6% 0.840
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 27 (6.3%) 19 (9.4%) 8 (3.5%) 0.013 17 (9.3%) 10 (4.0%) 0.025 5.9% 3.8% 0.156 6.0% 5.2% 0.592
Peripheral artery occlusive disease 27 (6.3%) 7 (3.4%) 20 (8.8%) 0.022 16 (8.8%) 11 (4.4%) 0.066 4.0% 5.7% 0.253 6.0% 5.6% 0.816
Cerebral/subarachnoid hemorrhage 26 (6.0%) 11 (5.4%) 15 (6.6%) 0.606 17 (9.3%) 9 (3.6%) 0.014 5.2% 6.4% 0.452 6.0% 6.3% 0.846
Osteoarthritis 21 (4.9%) 6 (3.0%) 15 (6.6%) 0.079 9 (4.9%) 12 (4.8%) 0.96 5.6% 5.0% 0.658 5.1% 4.9% 0.919
Number of prescriptions (mean ± standard deviation) 6.1 ± 3.0 6.3 ± 3.0 5.8 ± 3.0 0.065 6.6 ± 3.1 5.6 ± 2.8 <0.001 6.2 ± 3.0 6.0 ± 3.1 0.427 5.9 ± 3.0 6.0 ± 3.0 0.879