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Table 4 Analyses on the factors that influence perception of patient safety climate

From: Survey on patient safety climate in public hospitals in China

Parameter Senior leadership Resources for safety Facility characteristics Workgroup leadership Workgroup norms
  β t β t β t β t β t
Intercept 5.78 61.76*** 5.43 52.95*** 5.64 55.99*** 5.76 56.88*** 6.03 72.38***
Hospital (ref Hospital 6)
Hospital1 −0.05 −0.43 −0.15 −1.27 −0.04 −0.31 −0.08 −0.71 −0.10 −1.02
Hospital2 0.13 1.20 −0.17 −1.38 −0.33 −2.82** −0.01 −0.04 −0.15 −1.58
Hospital3 0.17 1.40 −0.04 −0.29 −0.09 −0.65 0.14 1.06 −0.12 −1.13
Hospital4 0.59 4.47*** 0.67 4.60*** 0.68 4.78*** 0.63 4.36*** 0.37 3.17**
Hospital5 −0.24 −2.41* −0.08 −0.71 −0.21 −1.91 −0.21 −1.95 −0.47 −5.23***
Male# −0.19 −2.40* 0.02 0.18 −0.07 −0.88 −0.20 −2.34* −0.26 −3.68***
PhD or Master degree# −0.17 −1.53 −0.12 −1.00 −0.20 −1.72 −0.12 −1.00 −0.07 −0.74
Manager# 0.30 3.18** 0.25 2.38* 0.28 2.78** 0.40 3.90*** 0.25 2.96**
Working years −0.01 −1.22 −0.01 −1.86 −0.005 −1.08 −0.01 −1.43 −0.003 −0.72
F 8.39***   5.99***   8.30***   8.05***   10.83***  
Adjust R2 0.05   0.04   0.05   0.05   0.07  
N 1168   1169   1170   1170   1156  
Parameter Workgroup recognition Fear of shame Learning Fear of blame Psychological safety
  β t β t β t β t β t
Intercept 5.66 56.45*** 4.41 25.94*** 5.37 50.15*** 2.73 23.28*** 5.64 54.66***
Hospital (ref Hospital 6)
Hospital1 0.02 0.20 0.12 0.58 −0.08 −0.61 0.19 1.42 −0.35 −2.88**
Hospital2 −0.12 −1.04 0.89 4.48*** −0.24 −1.89 0.21 1.50 −0.22 −1.79
Hospital3 0.06 0.45 0.26 1.15 0.03 0.19 −0.33 −2.11* −0.04 −0.31
Hospital4 0.64 4.52*** 0.39 1.61 0.42 2.76** −0.08 −0.47 0.39 2.65**
Hospital5 −0.23 −2.11* 0.05 0.26 −0.22 −1.88 0.16 1.28 −0.22 −1.99*
Male# −0.27 −3.19** −0.57 −4.05*** −0.03 −0.30 −0.05 −0.47 −0.24 −2.76**
PhD or Master degree# −0.16 −1.38 −0.08 −0.41 0.03 0.22 0.02 0.17 −0.11 −0.93
Manager# 0.33 3.29** 0.10 0.57 0.10 0.93 0.13 1.08 0.34 3.26***
Working years −0.0002 −0.04 0.001 0.15 −0.002 −0.32 −0.01 −2.54 −0.001 −0.28
F 8.91***   5.07***   3.08**   2.59**   6.34***  
Adjust R2 0.06   0.03   0.02   0.01   0.04  
N 1156   1154   1139   1155   1151  
Parameter Problem responsiveness Outcomes Overall
  β t β t β t
Intercept 5.96 66.34*** 5.01 28.60*** 5.45 80.28***
Hospital (ref Hospital 6)
Hospital1 0.00 −0.01 0.09 0.45 −0.06 −0.77
Hospital2 0.02 0.19 0.18 0.85 0.03 0.42
Hospital3 0.06 0.54 −0.24 −1.02 0.01 0.11
Hospital4 0.39 3.07** −0.29 −1.17 0.46 4.77***
Hospital5 −0.34 −3.50*** 0.16 0.87 −0.19 −2.54*
Male# −0.33 −4.40*** −0.63 −4.31*** −0.22 −3.81***
PhD or Master degree# −0.18 −1.71 0.23 1.13 −0.09 −1.08
Manager# 0.32 3.51*** −0.12 −0.65 0.20 2.86**
Working years −0.002 −0.38 −0.002 −0.29 −0.003 −1.01
F 9.77***   3.17***    9.27***   
Adjust R2 0.06   0.02    0.06   
N 1152   1130    1102   
  1. Multivariable regression models; hospital dummy variables; #1: yes, 0: no; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01,***P < 0.001.