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Table 3 Teachable moments categories

From: Teachable moments and missed opportunities for smoking cessation counseling in a hospital emergency department: a mixed-methods study of patient-provider communication

Category and definition Example
Positive reinforcement Provider expresses support for patient’s previous or ongoing attempt to quit smoking. D: Have you thought about quittin it altogether?
P: Oh yeah, yeah, I plan on stoppin. Cause she used to smoke but she stopped because of him and
D: That’s great.
P: I cut, I cut, I cut down a lot. Like I said, [today I didn’t smoke.
D: [(Well.) Yeah, well. Extra little bit now, you’re practically there.
Encouragement Provider encourages patients to quit smoking but does not provide any advice or tailored feedback. P: There are times, there are times when I don’t smoke. When (name) and (name) was here I didn’t smoke for five days. ((laughs))
D: Um-
P: So it’s one of things-
D: [Ok well if you can do it for five days
P: [(I care about)
P: It’s not-
D: It’s not good for you. I’m not telling you anything you don’t know.
P: Well yeah.
D: If you can stop, I mean you probably should.
Assessing readiness Provider inquires about patient’s willingness to make a quit attempt. D: Ok. Do you smoke at all?
P: Yes. Don’t plan on quitting […]
P: I’m drug and alcohol free except for the medications that I am prescribed.
D: And the cigarettes.
P: Well they’re not technically a drug.
D: Nicotine is.
P: I don’t believe it.
D: Ok.
P: That drug I’m not yet to let go of.
D: Ok. Alright, well I encourage you to consider it when you’re ready. Ok?
P: Yes sir.
Motivating reasons: medical Provider discusses the health consequences of smoking. N: Um I encourage you to quit because it causes every known cancer out there in addition to bronchitis, pneumonia and lots of stuff.
P: Yes ma’am.
Motivating reasons: family Provider discusses the consequences of smoking for the patient’s family. N: Ok. Um do you have kids at home?
P: No I don’t have my kids at home. My kids live with their mother but uh there’s kids there that I look at like my own so.
N: Ok.
P: Yeah.
N: So you don’t need to be exposing them to-
P: Yeah.
N: To tobacco and smoke.
P: Oh when I smoke I go outside the house.
N: But it’s still on your clothes.
Motivating reasons: economic Provider cites the financial burden of smoking to motivate the patient to quit. D: Good. Do you smoke?
P: Yeah.
D: Well that's a big money saver.
P: I know.