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Table 1 Features of five types of home-visit nursing agencies in Japan categorized by cluster analysis from three nationwide surveys

From: Five types of home-visit nursing agencies in Japan based on characteristics of service delivery: cluster analysis of three nationwide surveys

  Total Nurse centered Rihabilitation centered Psychiatric centered Urban centered Rural centered
  n = 5,161 (100.0%) n = 560 (10.9%) n = 211 (4.1%) n = 360 (7.0%) n = 1,784 (34.5%) n = 2,246 (43.5%)
A) Operating structure       
Main body of establishment       
 Hospital corporation (a) 39% 30% 26% 43% 38% 43%
 Medical association (a) 5% 10% 0% 2% 6% 4%
 Nursing association (a) 3% 8% 0% 2% 3% 2%
 Incorporated association/general incorporated foundation (a) 6% 11% 1% 6% 6% 4%
 Social welfare corporation (a) 7% 7% 6% 7% 7% 8%
 Business corporation (a) 27% 17% 64% 31% 27% 26%
 Others (a) 13% 17% 2% 11% 14% 13%
Operating years (average)       
 Operating years (b) 10.9 12.8 9.3 10.4 11.2 10.4
Parallel establishment of medical facility       
 Clinics with no beds (c) 13% 13% 13% 5% 13% 13%
 Clinics with beds (c) 4% 1% 2% 4% 4% 5%
 Hospitals (c) 37% 39% 23% 58% 35% 37%
 None/missing value (c) 47% 49% 64% 34% 49% 46%
Care management agency and branch agency       
 Parallel establishment of care management agency (a) 54% 64% 41% 38% 57% 53%
 Another post of a worker as care manager (a) 18% 32% 8% 11% 21% 15%
 Establishment of branch agency (a) 4% 10% 9% 2% 3% 2%
B) Management of service       
Operation days       
 Only weekdays (b) 44% 47% 55% 40% 44% 42%
 Weekdays and Saturdays (b) 47% 43% 35% 53% 46% 48%
 Weekdays, Saturdays, and Sundays (b) 10% 10% 10% 7% 10% 10%
Status of notification system       
 Addition of emergency services delivery (a) 86% 98% 62% 68% 90% 84%
 Addition of 24-hour service delivery (a) 77% 97% 53% 55% 83% 72%
 Addition of intensive medical management (a) 92% 100% 77% 66% 97% 91%
 Addition of end-of-life care (a) 85% 98% 61% 59% 90% 83%
Home-visit nursing care in private nursing homes       
 Provisions of home-visit nursing services for patients in private nursing homes (c) 6% 7% 8% 11% 5% 6%
C) Employment       
Number of workers (average)       
 Nurses - converted as full-time workers (a) 4.7 8.8 5.1 4.4 4.2 4
 Rehabilitation staff - converted as full-time workers (a) 0.9 1.1 8.3 0.4 0.6 0.5
 Ratio of rehabilitation staff to total workers (a) 23% 0% 83% 1% 3% 2%
D) Patient utilization       
Patients (average)       
 Number of patients (a) 65.9 113.8 184 58.4 73 38.4
 Facilities with patients using medical insurance who accounted for 50% or more (a) 7% 4% 2% 90% 1% 0%
 Cancer at terminal stage (c) 2.6 5.8 2.3 1.3 2.6 1.9
 Intractable disease (c) 6.7 11.1 21.1 5.1 6.5 4.4
 Psychiatric disease (c) 5.2 4.8 2.2 50.7 2.7 1.7
Number of patients and home visits per worker (average)       
 Patients per worker (a) 11.6 11.9 13.9 12.1 15.4 8.3
 Patients of terminal-stage cancer care per worker (c) 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.4
 Patients with intractable diseases per worker (c) 1.1 1.1 1.5 1 1.3 0.9
 Patients with psychiatric diseases per worker (c) 1 0.4 0.2 9.7 0.6 0.4
 Pediatric patients per worker (c) 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1
 Home visits per worker (a) 64.4 68.8 72.5 61.3 85.1 46.6
System to accept patients       
 Home intravenous alimentation (b) 83% 98% 75% 56% 89% 78%
 Mechanical ventilation (b) 72% 91% 77% 49% 77% 64%
 Pain control with narcotic medication (b) 84% 97% 69% 55% 90% 80%
Number of patient deaths per year (average)       
 Total number of patient deaths (c) 13.9 32.4 13.1 5.4 14.5 9.2
 Number of patient deaths at home (c) 7.8 19.6 7 3.2 7.9 4.8
 Number of patient deaths at a place other than home (c) 6.1 12.8 6.2 2.2 6.6 4.3
 Rate of deaths at home (c) 62% 65% 59% 69% 62% 60%
Ratios related to death from cancer (average)       
 Number of patients who died from cancer (c) 8.5 19 6.3 3.7 8.5 6.2
 Ratio of cancer patients among patients who died (c) 45% 47% 30% 38% 44% 47%
 Ratio of deaths at home of patients who died from cancer (c) 54% 59% 50% 52% 56% 51%
 Ratio of deaths at home of patients who died due to a cause other than cancer (c) 46% 49% 37% 53% 47% 46%
E) Financial condition       
Financial performance of agency       
 Profitable (c) 44% 62% 58% 35% 49% 34%
 Balanced (c) 27% 19% 26% 22% 31% 27%
 Unprofitable (c) 20% 14% 3% 25% 14% 28%
 Unclear (c) 9% 6% 14% 18% 6% 11%
F) Regional cooperation       
Characteristics of location of the facility (cities, towns and villages)       
 Population density median (b) 1122/km2 1234/km2 3538/km2 1157/km2 1992/km2 808/km2
 Population aging rate average (b) 23.4 22.8 22.2 22.5 23.1 24
Directions and cooperation (average)       
 Collaborative hospitals who received directions (b) 23 34 53 16 26 17
 Collaborative physicians who received directions (b) 34.2 52.9 75.8 25.7 38.4 24
 Collaborative care management agencies 18 25 39 12 20 13
  1. (a): Data from the Survey of Institutions and Establishments for Long-term Care in 2011 (n = 5161).
  2. (b): Data from the Information Publication System for Long-term Care in 2012 (n = 4,400, matching rate to data (a): 84.4%).
  3. (c): Data from the a nationwide Fax survey in 2014 (n = 2,049 matching rate to data (a): 39.3%).