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Table 2 Determinants of NHIS membership among women of reproductive age in the Upper East region, GEHIP baseline survey 2011

From: Is Ghana’s pro-poor health insurance scheme really for the poor? Evidence from Northern Ghana

variable Unadjusted odd ratios 95 percent confidence interval Adjusted odd ratios 95 percent confidence interval
Urban a 1 1 1 1
Rural 0.55*** 0.47–0.64 0.70*** 0.58–0.85
Bawku East a 1 1 1 1
Bawku West 0.48*** 0.39–0.60 0.50*** 0.39–0.64
Bolgatanga 1.40** 1.12–1.74 1.31*** 1.02–1.69
Bongo 0.77* 0.63–0.94 0.74* 0.57–0.94
Builsa 1.31** 1.10–1.57 1.28* 1.02–1.60
Garu-Tempane 0.54*** 0.45–0.64 0.50*** 0.41–0.60
Talensi-Nabdan 0.72** 0.59–0.88 0.64*** 0.50–0.81
Quintile (poorest) a 1 1 1 1
Quintile2 1.14 0.96–1.35 1.10 0.92–1.32
Quintile3 0.97 0.82–1.16 1.06 0.88–1.27
Quintile4 1.24* 1.04–1.48 1.35** 1.11–1.63
Quintile5 (Richest) 2.72*** 2.29–3.24 2.38*** 1.96–2.88
No formal education a 1 1 1 1
Primary/JSS 1.17** 1.04–1.32 1.16 0.99–1.36
Sec/Tertiary 3.17*** 2.46–4.10 1.85*** 1.33–2.57
No child a 1 1 1 1
1–4 children 1.47*** 1.29–1.68 1.80*** 1.40–2.31
5+ children 0.91 079–1.05 1.44* 1.07–1.92
Christianity a 1 1 1  
Traditional 0.58*** 0.48–0.69 0 .66*** 0.54–0.80
Muslim 1.08 0.95–1.22 1.23* 1.05–1.45
No religion 0.60** 0.44–0.82 0.73 0 .52–1.01
15–17 years a 1 1 1 1
18–29 years 1.42*** 1.23–1.64 1.07 0.85–1.35
30–49 years 1.07 0.92–1.24 1.06 0.80–1.39
Not married a 1 1 1  
Married 1.18** 1.05–11.33 1.23* 1.01–1.50
Autonomy a 1 1 1 1
No autonomy 1.04 0.93–1.16 1.09 0.96–1.25
Farmer/trading a 1 1 1 1
Civil servant 3.96*** 2.42–6.51 1.66 0.92–3.0
Student 1.00 0.87–1.15 1.40* 1.08–1.83
  1. Note *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001; aReference variables.