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Table 3 Regression analysis results for the association between type of health insurance and utilization of hypertension-related inpatient services among patients with hypertension

From: Effect of health insurance type on health care utilization in patients with hypertension: a national health insurance database study in Korea

  Hospital admission Length of stay Hospitalization costs
Odds ratio [95% CI] Factor change a[95% CI] Factor change a[95% CI]
Type of insurance    
  Medical Aid Class Ib 1.710*** 1.305*** 1.412***
[1.632-1.792] [1.243-1.370] [1.289-1.545]
  Medical Aid Class IIc 1.413*** 1.419*** 1.103
[1.271-1.570] [1.263-1.594] [0.907-1.340]
  Health Insurance [ref] - - -
Age 1.029*** 1.014*** 1.037***
[1.028-1.030] [1.013-1.016] [1.035-1.040]
Gender    
  Male 0.999 0.992 0.893**
[0.969-1.030] [0.959-1.027] [0.839-0.951]
  Female [ref] - - -
Total costs for insurance-covered services (all causes) d 1.013*** 1.012*** 1.024***
[1.012-1.014] [1.011-1.013] [1.022-1.027]
Total No. outpatient visits (all causes) 0.981*** 0.970*** 0.988*
[0.975-0.986] [0.966-0.974] [0.978-0.998]
Elixhauser comorbidity index 1.577*** 1.074*** 1.784***
[1.563-1.592] [1.064-1.084] [1.749-1.822]
Ownership of institution    
  Non-government owned 1.004 0.891 1.197*
[0.910-1.107] [0.805-0.986] [1.013-1.416]
  Government owned [ref] - - -
Type of institution    
  Tertiary hospital 2.117*** 0.544*** 1.240**
[2.005-2.235] [0.505-0.585] [1.091-1.409]
  General hospital 1.923*** 0.713*** 1.065
[1.844-2.006] [0.670-0.758] [0.949-1.194]
  Hospitale [ref] 2.240*** - -
[2.126-2.360]   
  Long-term care facility 5.213*** 2.919*** 2. 474***
[4.580-5.933] [2.583-3.300] [2.024-3.022]
  Public health center 1.260*** 0.696*** 0.880
[1.130-1.406] [0.616-0.786] [0.715-1.084]
  Clinicf [ref] - 0.673*** 0.549***
  [0.636-0.712] [0.496-0.607]
Location of institution    
  Six major cities 1.134*** 1.358*** 0.992
[1.085-1.185] [1.293-1.426] [0.907-1.085]
  Nine provinces 1.248*** 1.145*** 1.046
[1.200-1.298] [1.096-1.196] [0.968-1.131]
  Seoul [ref] - - -
c -statistic 0.778   
Dispersion parameter   1.481  
P -value for LR test g   < 0.0001  
Vuongstatistic h   93.73***  
  1. All inpatient services were hypertension-related, with a primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary diagnosis of hypertension; Robust standard errors in parenthesis; All covariates at index-date otherwise specified; aExp (coefficient estimate) = factor change in expected hospitalization costs for a unit increase in a covariate; bBeneficiaries of Medical Aid who are not able to work at all; cBeneficiaries of Medical Aid who are able to work; dInsurance-covered medical costs during the 6-month baseline period in 2006 Korean won (one US dollar approximately equals 1,200 Korean won); eHospital used as a reference for length-of-stay and hospitalization costs variable; fClinic used as a reference for the hospital admission variable; gLikelihood Ratio (LR) test comparing negative binomial model against Poisson model; hComparing zero-inflated negative binomial model against negative binomial model; * p <0.05; ** p <0.001; *** p <0.0001; SE = standard error; 95% CI =95% confidence interval.