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Table 4 Performance of rapid QUAL-qual Method against Guba and Lincolns Authenticity Criteria

From: Using qualitative mixed methods to study small health care organizations while maximising trustworthiness and authenticity

Criterion Definition Application in research
Fairness Extent to which different stakeholder perspectives are elicited and taken into account. Involves identifying all stakeholders, soliciting their perspectives, and engaging in open negotiations with them around recommendations and future actions. We interviewed people holding a range of roles in each practice: practice nurses, a general practitioner, the practice manager and a receptionist.
The Reference Group was particularly valuable in the final phases of the write-up, through the advice they gave on structuring the recommendations.
Ontological authenticity Extent to which stakeholders’ perceptions of the world have been improved or expanded. The research gave “voice” to the participants by publishing and presenting information that they knew, but was not well understood or recognized more broadly.
Educative authenticity Extent to which individuals have developed a better understanding of other stakeholders’ experiences and perspectives. This work was distributed in many forms (peer review journals, conference, trade press articles etc.) to both nurses and doctors, and gave support to the notion that nurses play multiple functions, some under-recognized, by general practitioners and nurses.
Catalytic authenticity Extent to which the research elicits action and change. There is evidence at the macro level, that previously unnoticed element of practice nursing was the extent to which nurses were “educators” and yet “doctors tended not to recognize nurses’ educator [role] ... within the practice.” However, General Practice Education and Training, the national body responsible for preparing doctors for general practice, has now funded trials of practice nurses training general practice registrars.
Tactical authenticity Extent to which stakeholders feel empowered by the evaluation and by the ability to influence the actions taken. The findings (e.g. six roles of nurses [4]) were taken up at multiple levels by nurses from the Chief Nurse in Department of Health and Ageing to individual practice nurses. Spin-offs have included further development of some of the under-recognized roles such as the nurse as educator role through specific project funding [40].