Physicians

$40 billion

$56 billion

Assumes base case ratio of BIR costs for physicians of 27% (Canada:U.S.) [5]. Lower and upper bounds assume, respectively, 10% [9] and 14% [7] estimates of % revenue BIR for physicians from published data.

Hospitals

$42 billion

$87 billion

Base case and lower bound assumes ratio of BIR costs of 27% (Canada:U.S.) [5]; upper bound assumes 8.1% (author calculation using data from Woolhandler et al, 2003 [15]).

Other health services and supplies

$32 billion

$110 billion

Base case assumes ratio of BIR costs of 27% (Canada:U.S.); lower bound assumes 32%, upper bound 22%.

Private insurers

$140 billion

$220 billion

Lower bound assumes overhead % ratio =1.5 [13]/13 (Medicare: minimum private insurer est.); upper bound assumes ratio =1.5 [13] /22 (Medicare: maximum private insurer est.). Private insurer portion of Medicare and Medicaid admin costs added directly to totals for added BIR.

Public insurers

$0 billion

$35 billion

Lower bound est. assumes an overhead % ratio =1.5/1.5 (Medicare: Public insurers); upper bound assumes overhead % ratio =1.5/4.6.

TOTAL

$254

$507
 