Skip to main content

Table 4 Weighted unadjusted, age-adjusted and adjusted odds ratios (and corresponding 95% confidence intervals) according to multinomial logistic analysis

From: High-cost health care users in Ontario, Canada: demographic, socio-economic, and health status characteristics

Characteristic Top 1%* Top 2 - 5%* Top 6 - 50%*
Un-adjusted Age-adjusted Adjusted Un-adjusted Age-adjusted Adjusted Un-adjusted Age-adjusted Adjusted
Demographics & Socioeconomics
Sex          
 Female vs. Male 1.34 (1.10-1.64) 1.47 (1.19-1.81) 1.27 (1.01-1.59) 1.78 (1.62-1.95) 1.93 (1.74-2.13) 1.71 (1.53-1.92) 2.09 (2.00-2.18) 2.20 (2.09-2.31) 1.97 (1.86-2.08)
Age group          
 18 - 34 1.00 (Ref) -- 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) -- 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) -- 1.00 (Ref)
 35 - 49 3.14 (1.71-5.77) -- 1.91 (1.01-3.60) 1.62 (1.33-1.98) -- 1.05 (0.84-1.33) 1.37 (1.29-1.45) -- 1.04 (0.97-1.12)
 50 - 64 12.22 (6.86-21.76) -- 3.67 (1.93-6.99) 4.60 (3.89-5.44) -- 1.67 (1.37-2.05) 2.50 (2.35-2.66) -- 1.42 (1.31-1.53)
 65 - 74 113.39 (66.15-194.37) -- 27.92 (15.00-51.95) 38.92 (32.47-46.65) -- 11.51 (9.25-14.33) 12.77 (11.65-13.99) -- 6.45 (5.81-7.17)
 75+ 501.66 (283.42-887.95) -- 67.17 (35.53-127.98) 141.84 (115.88-173.60) -- 26.48 (20.71-33.85) 23.57 (20.47-27.15) -- 9.64 (8.30-11.20)
Ethnicity          
 Visible Minority vs. White 0.44 (0.28-0.71) 0.87 (0.54-1.40) 0.82 (0.49-1.39) 0.44 (0.36-0.54) 0.74 (0.60-0.91) 0.74 (0.57-0.95) 0.89 (0.83-0.95) 1.14 (1.06-1.23) 1.13 (1.02-1.25)
Immigrant status          
 Immigrant vs. Canadian-Born 1.10 (0.87-1.40) 0.83 (0.65-1.06) 0.83 (0.63-1.09) 1.07 (0.96-1.19) 0.84 (0.75-0.94) 0.92 (0.81-1.04) 1.28 (1.21-1.35) 1.11 (1.05-1.18) 1.10 (1.02-1.18)
Marital status          
 Other vs. Married 1.18 (0.97-1.43) 1.42 (1.15-1.75) 1.25 (1.00-1.56) 1.03 (0.94-1.14) 1.23 (1.10-1.37) 1.04 (0.92-1.17) 0.77 (0.74-0.81) 0.92 (0.88-0.97) 0.87 (0.82-0.92)
Household income          
 High 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Middle-High 1.25 (0.77-2.03) 1.23 (0.76-1.99) 0.98 (0.60-1.59) 1.16 (0.95-1.41) 1.14 (0.94-1.09) 0.99 (0.80-1.21) 1.06 (0.98-1.14) 1.07 (0.99-1.16) 1.00 (0.92-1.09)
 Middle 2.07 (1.31-3.28) 1.61 (1.02-2.56) 1.06 (0.66-1.72) 1.27 (1.06-1.51) 1.04 (0.87-1.25) 0.79 (0.65-0.97) 1.09 (1.02-1.16) 1.01 (0.94-1.09) 0.88 (0.81-0.95)
 Middle-Low 2.95 (1.90-4.58) 1.82 (1.18-2.82) 1.03 (0.66-1.61) 2.12 (1.77-2.53) 1.44 (1.20-1.74) 0.97 (0.80-1.19) 1.36 (1.27-1.46) 1.17 (1.08-1.26) 0.94 (0.86-1.02)
 Low 6.68 (4.35-10.24) 3.86 (2.49-5.97) 1.47 (0.94-2.30) 4.13 (3.49-4.90) 2.66 (2.23-3.19) 1.35 (1.11-1.65) 1.90 (1.76-2.05) 1.60 (1.47-1.74) 1.14 (1.04-1.25)
Health status
Has a regular doctor          
 Yes vs. No 2.63 (1.59-4.38) 1.51 (0.90-2.54) 1.22 (0.68-2.19) 3.23 (2.56-3.85) 2.07 (1.65-2.60) 1.61 (1.25-2.07) 2.59 (2.33-2.78) 2.02 (1.84-2.23) 1.55 (1.40-1.71)
Has a self-reported chronic disease          
 Yes vs. No 20.02 (14.43-27.77) 8.22 (5.81-11.6) 2.53 (1.75-3.67) 9.68 (8.39-11.17) 4.90 (4.24-5.66) 2.15 (1.85-2.50) 3.43 (3.27-3.59) 2.42 (2.30-2.55) 1.75 (1.66-1.85)
ADG Score - Quintile          
 Q 1 (Lowest) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Q 2 1.30 (0.59-2.87) 0.93 (0.41-2.09) 1.07 (0.46-2.47) 0.53 (0.41-0.69) 0.42 (0.33-0.55) 0.53 (0.40-0.70) 0.49 (0.45-0.53) 0.43 (0.40-0.47) 0.57 (0.52-0.62)
 Q 3 2.04 (1.03-4.03) 1.25 (0.62-2.52) 1.24 (0.60-2.53) 1.26 (0.96-1.66) 0.91 (0.69-1.20) 0.97 (0.73-1.30) 0.97 (0.90-1.05) 0.81 (0.75-0.88) 0.93 (0.85-1.01)
 Q 4 4.81 (2.78-8.32) 1.97 (1.11-3.49) 1.59 (0.88-2.85) 2.96 (2.38-3.69) 1.56 (1.24-1.95) 1.43 (1.13-1.81) 1.75 (1.64-1.88) 1.22 (1.13-1.31) 1.27 (1.18-1.38)
 Q 5 (Highest) 92.96 (55.55-155.58) 22.37 (12.77-39.16) 10.16 (5.77-17.90) 25.94 (21.19-31.77) 8.68 (6.99-10.78) 5.36 (4.30-6.68) 5.26 (4.90-5.66) 2.79 (2.57-3.02) 2.51 (2.31-2.74)
Body mass index          
 Underweight 1.97 (1.33-2.91) 2.82 (1.84-4.33) 1.40 (0.88-2.23) 1.70 (1.29-2.24) 2.28 (1.67-3.11) 1.37 (0.97-1.93) 1.06 (0.91-1.25) 1.29 (1.09-1.53) 0.99 (0.82-1.19)
 Normal weight 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Overweight 1.27 (1.01-1.60) 0.98 (0.77-1.24) 0.93 (0.73-1.19) 1.32 (1.18-1.47) 1.05 (0.93-1.18) 1.02 (0.90-1.15) 1.14 (1.08-1.19) 0.96 (0.91-1.01) 1.01 (0.95-1.07)
 Obese 2.00 (1.54-2.59) 1.96 (1.50-2.57) 1.09 (0.82-1.46) 2.13 (1.90-2.39) 2.06 (1.82-2.34) 1.33 (1.15-1.53) 1.53 (1.44-1.64) 1.40 (1.31-1.50) 1.21 (1.13-1.31)
Self-perceived general health          
 Good 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Fair 16.10 (13.14-19.74) 9.62 (7.76-11.9) 4.01 (3.17-5.07) 9.42 (8.30-10.68) 6.14 (5.36-7.04) 2.93 (2.53-3.40) 3.41 (3.12-3.71) 2.68 (2.44-2.94) 1.69 (1.52-1.87)
 Poor 173.62 (131.35-229.50) 109.37 (81.57-146.64) 26.44 (18.93-36.94) 67.16 (54.62-82.59) 45.77 (36.62-57.20) 13.64 (10.75-17.31) 10.90 (9.04-13.13) 8.55 (7.04-10.4) 3.99 (3.24-4.91)
Self-perceived mental health          
 Not Good vs. Good 6.21 (4.55-8.48) 8.32 (6.03-11.5) 1.32 (0.91-1.90) 4.20 (3.57-4.94) 5.31 (4.46-6.32) 1.22 (1.00-1.49) 2.27 (2.03-2.55) 2.52 (2.23-2.83) 1.23 (1.08-1.40)
Consulted mental health professional          
 Yes vs. No 3.19 (2.37-4.29) 6.91 (5.07-9.42) 2.43 (1.72-3.44) 2.67 (2.33-3.05) 4.81 (4.15-5.58) 2.00 (1.69-2.37) 2.14 (1.98-2.32) 2.74 (2.52-2.97) 1.67 (1.52-1.83)
Health behavior
Life stress          
 High vs. Low 1.18 (0.93-1.51) 2.47 (1.90-3.20) 1.01 (0.78-1.29) 1.09 (0.98-1.21) 1.92 (1.71-2.16) 1.08 (0.95-1.23) 1.04 (0.98-1.10) 1.31 (1.24-1.39) 1.06 (0.99-1.13)
Smoking status          
 Non-smoker 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Former (Daily) 2.74 (2.18-3.44) 1.57 (1.24-2.00) 1.35 (1.07-1.70) 2.38 (2.14-2.65) 1.48 (1.32-1.66) 1.38 (1.23-1.55) 1.52 (1.43-1.60) 1.12 (1.05-1.19) 1.15 (1.08-1.22)
 Light smoker 0.66 (0.50-0.87) 1.28 (0.95-1.73) 0.91 (0.66-1.25) 0.76 (0.66-0.87) 1.24 (1.07-1.44) 1.03 (0.88-1.21) 0.79 (0.74-0.85) 0.97 (0.91-1.04) 0.99 (0.91-1.07)
 Heavy smoker 1.67 (1.15-2.43) 2.66 (1.80-3.95) 1.19 (0.77-1.86) 1.39 (1.18-1.65) 1.95 (1.63-2.34) 1.19 (0.97-1.46) 0.83 (0.75-0.90) 0.89 (0.81-0.98) 0.87 (0.78-0.96)
Physical activity          
 Active vs. inactive 0.39 (0.32-0.48) 0.46 (0.37-0.57) 0.74 (0.59-0.93) 0.57 (0.52-0.64) 0.65 (0.58-0.72) 0.92 (0.82-1.04) 0.78 (0.75-0.82) 0.83 (0.79-0.87) 0.95 (0.90-1.01)
Alcohol consumption (past 12 months)          
 Non-Drinker vs. Current drinker 4.02 (3.26-4.96) 2.80 (2.24-3.50) 1.57 (1.26-1.97) 2.97 (2.68-3.29) 2.21 (1.98-2.47) 1.46 (1.28-1.66) 1.68 (1.58-1.79) 1.46 (1.37-1.56) 1.12 (1.04-1.21)
  1. *Referent group: Bottom 50% of users. Other: divorced, separated, widowed or single (never married); Married includes common-law.