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Table 1 The weighted* distribution of demographic, socio-economic, health and behavioral characteristics across health care expenditure categories using the 2003-2008 CCHS cohorts for adult Ontarians

From: High-cost health care users in Ontario, Canada: demographic, socio-economic, and health status characteristics

Characteristic Overall % (95% CI) Top 1% % (95% CI) Top 2 - 5% % (95% CI) Top 6 - 50% % (95% CI) Bottom 50% % (95% CI)
Total Population N =28,529,265 N =285,255 N =1,141,128 N =12,839,271 N =14,263,611
Socio-economics
Sex (Male) 48.9 (48.8, 49.0) 50.4 (45.5, 55.4) 43.4 (41.3, 45.6) 39.6 (39.0, 40.1) 57.7 (57.2, 58.3)
Age group      
 18 - 34 29.3 (29.0, 29.6) 3.6 (1.8, 5.4) 9.8 (8.5, 11.1) 20.6 (20.1, 21.2) 39.1 (38.6, 39.8)
 35 - 49 31.8 (31.3, 32.1) 10.9 (7.5, 14.3) 15.2 (13.4, 17.1) 27.1 (26.4, 27.8) 37.7 (36.9, 38.4)
 50 - 64 23.0 (22.6, 23.3) 22.5 (18.0, 27.0) 22.9 (21.1, 24.7) 26.3 (25.6, 27.0) 20.0 (19.4, 20.5)
 65 - 74 9.3 (9.1, 9.5) 24.1 (20.7, 27.5) 22.4 (20.7, 24.1) 15.5 (15.1, 15.9) 2.3 (2.1, 2.5)
 75+ 6.7 (6.5, 6.9) 38.8 (34.0, 43.6) 29.7 (27.8, 31.5) 10.4 (10.1, 10.8) 0.84 (0.73, 0.95)
Ethnicity      
 White 78.0 (77.4, 78.5) 87.1 (82.2, 91.5) 87.2 (85.3, 89.1) 78.5 (77.7, 79.3) 76.6 (75.8, 77.4)
 Visible Minority 20.2 (19.6, 20.7) 10.8 (6.5, 15.2) 10.7 (8.9, 12.6) 19.6 (18.8, 20.4) 21.6 (20.8, 22.4)
Immigrant Status      
 Canadian-Born 67.7 (67.2, 68.3) 68.1 (63.1, 73.0) 68.7 (66.6, 70.8) 64.8 (64.0, 65.7) 70.3 (69.4, 71.1)
 Immigrant 32.0 (31.4, 32.5) 31.4 (26.4, 36.3) 30.8 (28.7, 32.9) 34.8 (34.0, 35.7) 29.5 (28.6, 30.3)
Marital Status      
 Married or Common-Law 64.8 (64.3, 65.2) 58.3 (53.6, 62.9) 61.4 (59.3, 63.6) 68.1 (67.4, 68.8) 62.2 (61.5, 62.9)
 Other† 35.2 (34.7, 35.7) 41.7 (37.1, 46.3) 38.6 (36.4, 40.7) 31.9 (31.2, 32.6) 37.8 (37.1, 38.5)
Household Income (Equivalized)      
 Low 16.4 (16.0, 16.8) 32.6 (28.0, 37.2) 28.1 (26.2, 30.0) 19.2 (18.5, 19.8) 12.7 (12.2, 13.1)
 Low-middle 17.8 (17.4, 18.2) 19.4 (15.9, 22.8) 19.4 (17.6, 21.1) 18.5 (17.9, 19.1) 17.0 (16.4, 17.6)
 Middle 17.1 (16.7, 17.5) 14.8 (11.6, 17.9) 12.6 (11.2, 13.9) 16.0 (15.5, 16.6) 18.4 (17.9, 19.0)
 Middle-High 17.9 (17.5, 18.3) 9.5 ( 7.0, 12.0) 12.2 (10.8, 13.7) 16.6 (16.0, 17.2) 19.7 (19.1, 20.3)
 High 18.3 (17.8, 18.8) 8.0 (5.1, 10.9) 11.1 (9.7, 12.6) 16.5 (15.9, 17.1) 20.7 (20.0, 21.3)
Health Status
Has a regular doctor (Yes) 91.1(90.8,91.4) 94.9 (92.4, 97.3) 95.7 (94.9, 96.5) 94.7 (94.3, 95.1) 87.5 (87.0, 88.0)
Has a self-reported chronic disease T 53.4 (52.9, 53.9) 92.3 (90.0, 94.6) 85.3 (83.6, 87.0) 67.3 (66.5, 68.1) 37.5 (36.9, 38.2)
Mean ADG Score** 4.9 (4.9, 5.0) 22.7 (21.2, 24.2) 16.7 (16.1, 17.3) 7.2 (7.0, 7.4) 1.6 (1.5, 1.7)
Body Mass Index (kg/m 2 )      
 Underweight, BMI <18.5 2.7 (2.5, 2.9) 4.0 (2.6, 5.4) 3.4 (2.6, 4.3) 2.5 (2.3, 2.8) 2.7 (2.4, 3.0)
 Normal weight, 18.5 - 24.9 44.6 (44.1, 45.2) 36.0 (31.6, 40.5) 35.7 (33.6, 37.7) 41.8 (41.0, 42.6) 48.0 (47.2, 48.8)
 Overweight, 25 - 29.9 33.1 (32.6, 33.5) 31.7 (27.4, 36.1) 32.5 (30.5, 34.5) 32.9 (32.2, 33.6) 33.3 (32.5, 34.0)
 Obese, BMI >30 15.6 (15.3, 16.0) 19.8 (16.1, 23.6) 20.9 (19.4, 22.5) 17.7 (17.1, 18.3) 13.2 (12.8, 13.7)
Self-perceived general health      
 Good (excellent/very/good) 87.6 (87.3, 88.0) 38.8 (34.7, 42.8) 57.1 (55.0, 59.2) 82.9 (82.3, 83.6) 95.3 (95.0, 95.6)
 Fair 9.0 (8.7, 9.3) 27.7 (24.1, 31.3) 23.8 (22.0, 25.6) 12.5 (12.0, 13.0) 4.2 (3.9, 4.5)
 Poor 3.3 (3.1, 3.6) 33.3 (28.8, 37.8) 19.0 (17.1, 20.9) 4.5 (4.1, 4.9) 0.47 (0.39, 0.55)
Self-perceived mental health      
 Good (excellent/very/good) 92.3 (92.0, 92.7) 70.6 (66.2, 75.0) 80.2 (78.5, 81.8) 90.6 (90.1, 91.1) 95.3 (94.9, 95.7)
 Not Good (fair/poor) 5.2 (5.0, 5.5) 14.5 (10.9, 18.2) 11.2 (9.8, 12.5) 6.8 (6.4, 7.3) 3.2 (2.9, 3.4)
Consulted a mental health professional (past 12 months)      
 Yes 8.9 (8.6, 9.2) 14.4 (10.9, 17.9) 13.3 (11.9, 14.7) 11.7 (11.2, 12.1) 5.9 (5.5, 6.3)
 No 88.6 (88.2, 88.9) 70.9 (66.5, 75.3) 78.0 (76.2, 79.8) 85.6 (85.0, 86.1) 92.5 (92.0, 92.9)
Behavioral
Life Stress      
 High (Quite a bit or extreme) 23.3 (22.8, 23.7) 25.8 (21.3, 30.3) 24.3 (22.4, 26.1) 23.5 (22.9, 24.2) 22.9 (22.2, 23.6)
 Low (A bit, not very, none) 76.4 (76.0, 76.9) 73.2 (68.6, 77.8) 74.8 (72.9, 76.7) 76.1 (75.5, 76.8) 76.9 (76.2, 77.6)
Smoking status      
 Heavy smoker (1+ packs/day) 6.5 (6.3, 6.8) 9.1 (6.2, 11.9) 8.0 (6.9, 9.1) 5.6 (5.3, 6.0) 7.1 (6.8, 7.5)
 Light smoker (<1 pack/day) 16.1 (15.7, 16.5) 9.3 (7.1, 11.4) 11.3 (10.0, 12.5) 14.0 (13.5, 14.6) 18.5 (17.9, 19.2)
 Former (Daily) smoker 23.5 (23.1, 24.0) 39.2 (34.5, 44.0) 36.1 (34.1, 38.1) 27.3 (26.6, 27.9) 18.9 (18.3, 19.4)
 Non-smoker 53.7 (52.2, 54.3) 42.1 (37.3, 46.9) 44.5 (42.4, 46.6) 52.9 (52.1, 53.7) 55.4 (54.6, 56.2)
Physical activity      
 Inactive (<1.5 METs/day) 49.5 (48.8, 50.1) 59.4 (55.0, 63.9) 55.8 (53.6, 58.0) 52.0 (51.1, 52.8) 46.5 (45.6, 47.3)
 Active (1.5+ METs/day) 48.2 (47.5, 48.8) 25.9 (21.9, 29.8) 35.7 (33.5, 37.9) 45.5 (44.6, 46.3) 52.0 (51.1, 52.9)
Alcohol consumption (past year)†      
 Current Drinker (any) 79.6 (79.1, 80.1) 57.4 (52.4, 62.4) 64.6 (62.4, 66.7) 76.2 (75.5, 77.0) 84.4 (83.7, 85.0)
 Current Non-Drinker 20.3 (19.7, 20.8) 42.5 (37.5, 47.6) 35.3 (33.2, 37.5) 23.6 (22.9, 24.4) 15.6 (14.9, 16.2)
  1. *Weighted using bootstrap weights provided by Statistics Canada. †Other: Divorced, separated, widowed or single. TChronic conditions common to all three CCHS cycles: asthma, arthritis, back problems, migraines, COPD or emphysema, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer, intestinal ulcers, effects of stroke, urinary incontinence, bowel disease, mood disorder or anxiety. **Mean ADG Score - a weighted score based on an individual’s aggregated diagnosis groups (ADG). Austin’s weighted ADG score has been described and validated elsewhere. Percentages represent “percent responded”. Sampling weights were used to produce population estimates.