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Table 1 Study outcomes

From: Financial incentives for return of service in underserved areas: a systematic review

Program results (Program outcomes among participants) Program effects (Program effectiveness at the individual level) Program impacts (Program effectiveness at the population level)
Recruitment Provision of care Health system
What proportion of program participants fulfill their obligation to work in an underserved area? (14) Does program participation affect a health worker's likelihood of providing care in an underserved area? (11) Does the program affect health systems outcomes (e.g., physician density)? (6)
Retention Retention Health
What proportion of program participants continue to work in an underserved area after having fulfilled their obligation? (17) Does program participation affect a health worker's likelihood of continuing to provide care in an underserved area after a certain period of time? (7) Does the program affect health outcomes (e.g., mortality)? (1)
Participant satisfaction Participant satisfaction  
What proportion of program participants are satisfied with Does program participation affect a health worker's satisfaction with  
- work in the underserved area - work in the underserved area  
- life in the underserved area - life in the underserved areas? (2)  
- other aspects of the financial-incentive program? (7)   
Family satisfaction   
What proportion of relatives of program participants are satisfied with   
- work in the underserved area   
- life in the underserved area   
- other aspects of the financial-incentive program? (3)   
  1. The term underserved area in the table encompasses both underserved geographical areas and underserved populations. The number of studies investigating the specific outcomes is shown in parentheses. The numbers in parentheses add up to 68. Twenty-five studies contribute 1 outcome each to this sum, while nine studies contribute 2 outcomes each, seven studies contribute 3 outcomes each, and one study contributes 4 outcomes. Two published articles report the same outcomes from the same study [41, 42]; these outcomes are counted only once in the table