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Table 4 Determinants of (a) seeing a professional for a new health problem (b) using private healthcare-logistic regression (RLMS: men and women aged 18–59)

From: An analysis of trends and determinants of health insurance and healthcare utilisation in the Russian population between 2000 and 2004: the 'inverse care law' in action

  Male Female
  (i) Age, gender (ii) Age, gend, inc, educ, area, marital (iii) = (ii) + empl. status + s-r health (i) Age, gender (ii) Age, gend, inc, educ, area, marital (iii) = (ii) + empl. status + s-r health
  SEEING A PROFESSIONAL (vs not seeing) – Odds ratio (95% CI)
Sex (female vs male) - - - 1.16 (1.01–1.33) 1.17 (1.00–1.35) 1.03 (0.89–1.21)
Age (per year) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 1.00 (0.99–1.01)
Health ins.       
Compulsory 1 1   1 1  
Suppl. (priv) 1.02 (0.53–1.97) 1.13 (0.56–2.27) 1.21 (0.60–2.45) 1.04 (0.63–1.70) 1.19 (0.69–2.07) 1.28 (0.73–2.23)
None 0.62 (0.41–0.93) 0.64 (0.42–0.98) 0.68 (0.44–1.06) 0.56 (0.36–0.88) 0.53 (0.33–0.86) 0.56 (0.34–0.91)
Education       
1ry/incomp 2ry 1 1   1 1  
Comp 2ry 0.76 (0.58–0.99) 0.79 (0.60–1.05) 0.89 (0.66–1.20) 0.68 (0.54–0.87) 0.72 (0.56–0.93) 0.77 (0.59–1.01)
Higher 0.82 (0.60–1.11) 0.91 (0.65–1.27) 1.11 (0.78–1.58) 0.77 (0.61–0.97) 0.85 (0.66–1.10) 0.95 (0.72–1.25)
Hhld inc. pp quintile (asc.) 0.96 (0.88–1.04) 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 0.98 (0.92–1.04) 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 1.00 (0.93–1.07)
Nr consumer gds (0–5) 0.92 (0.70–1.21) 0.96 (0.69–1.34) 1.03 (0.72–1.47) 0.97 (0.83–1.14) 0.91 (0.76–1.11) 0.87 (0.72–1.06)
Marital status       
Married 1 1   1 1  
Single 1.63 (1.15–2.31) 1.56 (1.08–2.25) 1.23 (0.81–1.86) 1.49 (1.14–1.94) 1.46 (1.10–1.94) 1.44 (1.06–1.94)
Divorced 1.99 (1.24–3.19) 2.08 (1.27–3.41) 1.67 (0.98–2.85) 0.92 (0.69–1.23) 0.92 (0.69–1.25) 0.97 (0.72–1.32)
Widowed 0.52 (0.15–1.80) 0.54 (0.15–1.89) 0.43 (0.12–1.55) 1.10 (0.79–1.54) 1.15 (0.81–1.62) 1.09 (0.77–1.56)
Cohabiting 1.15 (0.80–1.66) 1.15 (0.79–1.68) 1.24 (0.84–1.83) 1.10 (0.83–1.47) 1.09 (0.80–1.48) 1.09 (0.79–1.49)
Geog. area       
Urban 1 1   1 1  
Rural 0.96 (0.73–1.26) 0.93 (0.70–1.24) 1.00 (0.75–1.35) 1.05 (0.85–1.30) 1.03 (0.82–1.28) 1.06 (0.84–1.33)
Moscow/St P 1.18 (0.86–1.62) 1.18 (0.83–1.66) 1.22 (0.85–1.73) 1.12 (0.88–1.43) 1.18 (0.90–1.56) 1.22 (0.92–1.62)
Employment       
Working 1 1   1 1  
paid leave 1.09 (0.29–4.06) 1.14 (0.30–4.29) 1.00 (0.26–3.80) 1.27 (0.79–2.02) 1.46 (0.88–2.44) 1.55 (0.92–2.61)
Unpaid leave - - - 3.13 (0.70–14.06) 2.84 (0.62–12.99) 2.96 (0.65–13.46)
not working 1.74 (1.26–2.39) 1.71 (1.16–2.52) 1.57 (1.06–2.33) 1.02 (0.80–1.31) 1.07 (0.81–1.42) 1.05 (0.79–1.40)
unemployed 0.95 (0.64–1.41) 0.94 (0.62–1.41) 0.92 (0.60–1.41) 0.61 (0.42–0.90) 0.63 (0.42–0.94) 0.65 (0.43–0.97)
Pension 3.10 (2.07–4.62) 2.93 (1.89–4.55) 2.32 (1.47–3.66) 1.78 (1.35–2.35) 1.60 (1.18–2.17) 1.33 (0.97–1.82)
Self-rated hlth 1(vg) -5(vp) 1.81 (1.51–2.16) 1.78 (1.47–2.14) 1.65 (1.36–2.00) 1.98 (1.69–2.32) 2.02 (1.71–2.39) 2.00 (1.69–2.36)
  SEEKING PRIVATE HEALTH CARE (vs not seeking private care) – Odds ratio (95% CI)
Sex (female vs male) - - - 1.81 (1.15–2.85) 1.52 (0.92– 2.52) 1.52 (0.92–2.53)
Age (per year) 0.99 (0.97–1.02) 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.96 (0.93–0.98) 0.96 (0.93–0.98)
Health ins.       
Compulsory 1 1 1 1 1 1
Suppl. (priv) 3.56 (0.72–17.58) 1.83 (0.28–12.08) 2.64 (0.40–17.26) 3.03 (1.15–7.95) 2.25 (0.72–7.00) 2.23 (0.71–6.98)
None 4.61 (1.55–13.74) 3.80 (0.96–15.08) 3.65 (0.85–15.71) 2.45 (0.87–6.93) 2.78 (0.81–9.51) 2.83 (0.81–9.81)
Education       
1ry/incomp 2ry 1 1 1 1 1 1
Comp 2ry 4.94 (1.33–18.42) 7.06 (1.44–34.58) 8.28 (1.62–42.40) 2.68 (1.04–6.89) 3.24 (1.13–9.25) 3.26 (1.13–9.36)
Higher 8.59 (2.10–35.20) 9.14 (1.62–51.46) 12.06 (1.91–76.0) 6.14 (2.49–15.14) 6.52 (2.33–18.27) 6.21 (2.13–18.10)
Hhld inc. pp quintile (asc.) 1.74 (1.22–2.48) 1.46 (0.99–2.17) 1.49 (1.01–2.20) 1.23 (1.03–1.46) 1.12 (0.93–1.36) 1.08 (0.89–1.32)
Nr consumer gds (0–5) 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 1.07 (0.97–1.18) 1.08 (0.98–1.19) 1.02 (0.96–1.09) 1.05 (0.97–1.13) 1.05 (0.97–1.13)
Marital status       
Married 1 1 1 1 1 1
Single 2.63 (0.71–9.74) 1.77 (0.48–6.52) 1.96 (0.43–8.88) 0.65 (0.33–1.29) 0.89 (0.43–1.85) 0.85 (0.40–1.82)
Divorced 0.63 (0.08–5.07) 0.81 (0.09–7.47) 0.97 (0.09–10.35) 0.82 (0.35–1.92) 0.86 (0.35–2.10) 0.80 (0.33–1.98)
Widowed - - - 1.28 (0.52–3.13) 1.95 (0.75–5.09) 1.96 (0.75–5.13)
Cohabiting 1.30 (0.34–5.05) 0.64 (0.12–3.50) 0.81 (0.13–4.99) 0.40 (0.15–1.07) 0.20 (0.04–0.86) 0.19 (0.04–0.86)
Geog. area       
Urban 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rural 0.40 (0.09–1.81) 0.46 (0.10–2.19) 0.42 (0.08–2.08) 0.63 (0.33–1.23) 0.76 (0.38–1.52) 0.74 (0.37–1.49)
Moscow/St P 4.21 (1.78–9.94) 2.88 (1.09–7.63) 2.87 (1.04–7.91) 1.66 (0.92–2.97) 1.36 (0.67–2.76) 1.39 (0.68–2.82)
Employment       
Working 1 1 1 1 1 1
paid leave 7.00 (0.60–82.16) 14.32 (0.81–52.26) 14.32 (0.81–252.3) 0.35 (0.08–1.57) 0.45 (0.09–2.14) 0.45 (0.09–2.14)
Unpaid leave - - - - - -
not working 1.62 (0.53–4.97) 3.55 (1.00–12.69) 3.55 (1.00–12.69) 0.67 (0.34–1.32) 0.85 (0.39–1.88) 0.85 (0.39–1.88)
unemployed 1.47 (0.40–5.45) 3.49 (0.73–16.63) 3.49 (0.73–16.63) 0.52 (0.15–1.77) 0.59 (0.16–2.16) 0.59 (0.16–2.16)
Pension 0.28 (0.03–2.19) - - 0.38 (0.15–1.00) 0.72 (0.26–2.03) 0.72 (0.26–2.03)
Self-rated hlth 1(vg)-5(vp) 0.42 (0.23–0.77) 0.41 (0.19–0.89) 0.37 (0.17–0.84) 0.87 (0.59–1.28) 0.95 (0.62–1.46) 0.94 (0.61–1.45)
  1. [Results in bold are statistically significant (p < 0.05)]