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Table 3 Determinants of nothaving compulsory medical insurance, and of having supplementary (private) insurance – results of logistic regression analyses (RLMS: 2004, 18–59)

From: An analysis of trends and determinants of health insurance and healthcare utilisation in the Russian population between 2000 and 2004: the 'inverse care law' in action

  Male Female
  (i) Age (ii) Age, inc, educ, area, marital (iii) = (ii) + employment status (i) Age (ii) Age, inc, educ, area, marital (iii) = (ii) + employment status
  NOT HAVING COMPULSORY INSURANCE (vs having insurance) – Odds ratio (95% CI)
Sex (female vs male) - - - 0.49 (0.42–0.58) 0.46 (0.38–0.56) 0.47 (0.39–0.57)
Age (per year) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 1.00 (0.98–1.01)
Education       
1y/incomp 2ry 1 1 1 1 1 1
Comp 2ry 1.05 (0.81–1.36) 1.02 (0.77–1.34) 0.99 (0.74–1.31) 0.97 (0.67–1.40) 0.93 (0.63–1.39) 0.88 (0.59–1.31)
Higher 0.89 (0.66–1.21) 1.04 (0.74–1.45) 1.03 (0.73–1.45) 0.78 (0.54–1.13) 0.76 (0.51–1.15) 0.79 (0.51–1.20)
Hhld inc. pp quintile (asc.) 0.85 (0.79–0.92) 0.90 (0.83–0.98) 0.97 (0.89–1.07) 0.86 (0.78–0.95) 0.90 (0.81–1.00) 0.94 (0.84–1.05)
Nr consumer gds (0–5) 0.80 (0.74–0.86) 0.80 (0.73–0.88) 0.86 (0.78–0.94) 0.85 (0.77–0.93) 0.84 (0.75–0.95) 0.86 (0.76–0.97)
Marital status       
Married 1 1 1 1 1 1
Single 0.72 (0.51–1.02) 0.73 (0.51–1.05) 0.74 (0.51–1.09) 0.48 (0.30–0.76) 0.42 (0.26–0.69) 0.41 (0.25–0.68)
Divorced 1.73 (1.12–2.67) 1.47 (0.92–2.33) 1.33 (0.82–2.15) 1.26 (0.82–1.95) 1.17 (0.75–1.85) 1.23 (0.77–1.95)
Widowed 3.03 (1.21–7.54) 1.90 (0.64–5.62) 2.12 (0.68–6.59) 1.63 (0.95–2.80) 1.29 (0.72–2.32) 1.41 (0.78–2.56)
Cohabiting 2.43 (1.81–3.24) 2.40 (1.78–3.24) 2.28 (1.68–3.10) 1.57 (1.07–2.30) 1.48 (0.99–2.22) 1.44 (0.95–2.18)
Area of residence       
Urban 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rural 1.19 (0.94–1.51) 1.17 (0.91–1.50) 0.93 (0.71–1.21) 0.99 (0.72–1.37) 0.90 (0.64–1.26) 0.82 (0.58–1.15)
Moscow/St P 0.40 (0.26–0.63) 0.46 (0.29–0.75) 0.49 (0.30–0.80) 0.55 (0.33–0.90) 0.61 (0.35–1.06) 0.56 (0.32–0.98)
Employment status       
Working 1 1 1 1 1 1
Paid leave 0.50 (0.07–3.71) 0.66 (0.52–0.84) 0.75 (0.58–0.97) 0.75 (0.30–1.88) 0.39 (0.12–1.28) 0.40 (0.12–1.28)
Not working 0.76 (0.53–1.10) 0.83 (0.54–1.27) 0.79 (0.52–1.21) 1.67 (1.16–2.42) 1.62 (1.08–2.46) 1.64 (1.08–2.48)
Unemployed (sr) 3.45 (2.66–4.45) 3.29 (2.47–4.40) 3.05 (2.27–4.10) 3.51 (2.43–5.08) 3.15 (2.12–4.68) 3.18 (2.13–4.75)
Pension 0.19 (0.06–0.59) 0.15 (0.04–0.61) 0.14 (0.03–0.57) 0.28 (0.11–0.69) 0.33 (0.13–0.83) 0.33 (0.13–0.84)
Self-rated hlth (vg -5(vp) 1.32 (1.11–1.56) 1.30 (1.09–1.56) 1.41 (1.17–1.70) 1.10 (0.88–1.38) 1.08 (0.85–1.37) 1.17 (0.91–1.49)
  HAVING SUPPLEMENTARY (PRIVATE) INSURANCE (vs not having) Odds ratio (95% CI)
Sex (female vs male) - - - 0.77 (0.60–1.00) 0.70 (0.53–.093) 0.75 (0.56–1.00)
Age (per year) 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 1.02 (1.00–1.03) 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 1.02 (1.00–1.04)
Education       
1y/incomp 2ry 1 1 1 1 1 1
Comp 2ry 3.41 (1.73–6.72) 2.54 (1.27–5.09) 2.30 (1.15–4.59) 3.43 (1.45–8.15) 2.22 (0.91–5.44) 1.99 (0.81–4.90)
Higher 4.90 (2.46–9.75) 2.49 (1.22–5.07) 2.05 (1.01–4.16) 4.68 (2.01–10.87) 2.62 (1.10–6.27) 1.93 (0.80–4.65)
Hhld inc. pp quintile (asc.) 1.88 (1.58–2.24) 1.76 (1.46–2.12) 1.73 (1.43–2.09) 1.88 (1.56–2.25) 1.70 (1.40–2.07) 1.65 (1.35–2.02)
Nr consumer gds (0–5) 1.26 (1.09–1.46) 1.14 (0.97–1.34) 1.13 (0.96–1.34) 1.19 (1.03–1.37) 1.31 (1.10–1.55) 1.32 (1.10–1.58)
Marital status       
Married 1 1 1 1 1 1
Single 0.31 (0.16–0.61) 0.38 (0.19–0.76) 0.63 (0.32–1.27) 0.98 (0.55–1.74) 1.25 (0.68–2.32) 1.62 (0.88–2.98)
Divorced 0.30 (0.10–0.96) 0.44 (0.14–1.43) 0.47 (0.14–1.52) 1.11 (0.64–1.94) 1.21 (0.64–2.27) 1.11 (0.59–2.12)
Widowed 0.61 (0.08–4.52) 0.81 (0.10–6.32) 0.99 (0.12–8.07) 0.40 (0.14–1.13) 0.69 (0.24–1.97) 0.70 (0.24–2.02)
Cohabiting 0.53 (0.28–1.01) 0.58 (0.30–1.13) 0.61 (0.31–1.17) 0.73 (0.37–1.44) 0.67 (0.30–1.51) 0.69 (0.31–1.56)
Area of residence       
Urban       
Rural 0.47 (0.27–0.82) 0.63 (0.36–1.12) 0.64 (0.36–1.13) 0.31 (0.15–0.66) 0.40 (0.19–0.85) 0.42 (0.20–0.90)
Moscow/St P 2.03 (1.32–3.12) 1.18 (0.73–1.91) 1.25 (0.77–2.04) 2.58 (1.69–3.92) 1.58 (0.98–2.56) 1.56 (0.96–2.55)
Employment status       
Working 1 1 1 1 1 1
Paid leave 0.93 (0.12–7.01) 0.72 (0.48–1.09) 0.53 (0.07–4.09) 2.06 (1.05–4.05) 1.90 (0.86–4.15) 2.24 (0.99–5.04)
Not working 0.12 (0.04–0.37) 0.58 (0.08–4.42) 0.13 (0.03–0.57) 0.31 (0.15–0.64) 0.38 (0.17–0.87) 0.35 (0.15–0.83)
Unemployed (sr) 0.13 (0.04–0.42) 0.15 (0.03–0.63) 0.24 (0.07–0.79) 0.08 (0.01–0.57) 0.13 (0.02–0.93) 0.14 (0.02–1.03)
Pension 0.09 (0.01–0.68) 0.27 (0.08–0.89) 0.14 (0.02–1.06) 0.06 (0.01–0.46) 0.12 (0.02–0.85) 0.11 (0.02–0.84)
Self-rated hlth (vg -5(vp) 0.90 (0.67–1.21) 1.04 (0.76–1.44) 1.11 (0.79–1.55) 0.87 (0.64–1.20) 1.06 (0.74–1.51) 1.14 (0.79–1.65)
  1. [Results in bold are statistically significant (p < 0.05)]