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Table 1 Structure of hierarchical linear models

From: Factors related to treatment intensity in Swiss primary care

Type of variable Description
Outcome Number of annual physician consultations
Explanatory variables  
- Level I (physician) Model 1: Number of patients treated in 2004 a.
  Model 2: 4 indicator variables (P_Q1 – P_Q4) representing quartiles of the number of patients treated in 2004a
  Physician gender
  Physician age
  Professional qualificationb
  Average patient age
  Proportion of female patient consultations
- Level II (service area) Number of PCP's per 10,000 inhabitants
  Number of specialistsc per 10,000 inhabitants
  Presence of a hospital providing ambulatory services (coded as a binary variable with 0 for no hospital and 1 for at least one hospital).
  Number of deaths per 1000 inhabitants (mortality)
  1. a See Table 4 for results of model 1 and 2.
  2. b Board certification of the Swiss Medical Association (family medicine, general internal medicine, general practitioners without board certification).
  3. c Physicians providing ambulatory care but not classified as primary care provider (board certification in other medical disciplines)
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