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Table 4 Univariate estimation of excess length of stay and excess costs (in Euro) of adverse events

From: Direct medical costs of adverse events in Dutch hospitals

Cost categories All Adverse events* (n = 663, weighted n = 456) Preventable Adverse events* (n = 283, weighted n = 182)
Disability** N Mean days (se) Cost in € including interventions (se) N Mean volume (se) Cost in € (se)
No disability 115 5.5 (1.0) 2970 (475) 29 5.6 (1.7) 2979 (781)
Minor disability 276 10.4 (0.7) 5174 (598) 117 11.2 (1.2) 5973 (1332)
Permanent disability 21 16.0 (3.1) 6232 (1331) 16 16.8 (3.9) 6649 (1667)
Deceased 35 7.8 (2.8) 4566 (1636) 17 7.0 (5.0) 3831 (2263)
Speciality       
Surgical 293 10.1 (0.7) 5474 (601) 115 10.7 (1.3) 6122 (1371)
Medical 163 7.4 (0.8) 2909 (339) 66 9.7 (1.6) 3831 (654)
Type of hospital       
Academic 80 10.1 (1.5) 5488 (858) 17 15.7 (3.3) 8100 (1515)
General hospitals 376 8.9 (0.6) 4356 (460) 165 9.7 (1.1) 4992 (985)
Age categories       
1–18 years 10 1.4 (0.4) 597 (127) 2 0 (0) 0 (0)
19–40 years 54 12.2 (1.9) 5303 (854) 22 12.3 (3.3) 4727 (1280)
41–65 years 161 7.1 (0.8) 3736 (379) 61 8.2 (1.5) 3652 (537)
66–79 years 139 11.9 (1.2) 6413 (1170) 55 14.8 (2.2) 9290 (2770)
80 years and over 91 7.5 (1.0) 3134 (407) 42 6.9 (1.5) 2923 (700)
ICD9DE primary groups***       
Neoplasms 52 8.8 (2.1) 7636 (2923) 13 14.4 (6.8) 18734 (10772)
Circulatory system 86 7.5 (1.0) 4396 (608) 26 10.7 (2.2) 4542 (853)
Respiratory system 31 6.1 (1.7) 2519 (751) 18 7.0 (2.8) 2938 (1235)
Digestive system 45 10.4 (1.9) 4789 (951) 20 9.3 (3.3) 3963 (1179)
Genitourinary system 35 8.5 (1.3) 4068 (916) 13 13.7 (2.7) 6640 (2250)
Muscoskeletal system and connective tissue 41 7.4 (1.6) 3093 (553) 16 3.1 (0.7) 1601 (330)
Symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions 33 7.8 (1.4) 2834 (484) 13 11.1 (2.8) 3831 (981)
Injury and poisoning 69 14.4 (1.8) 6084 (781) 31 14.2 (2.9) 5976 (1172)
Admission departments***       
Cardiology 54 8.8 (1.7) 3852 (766) 18 9.7 (2.2) 3685 (787)
Surgery 146 10.7 (1.0) 5443 (455) 59 12.2 (2.0) 4962 (746)
Intensive Care 10 16.0 (7.8) 29307 (14313) 5 28.3 (13.7) 52058 (25329)
Internal Medicine 68 8.8 (1.5) 3423 (595) 15 13.4 (4.7) 5451 (1906)
Pulmonary diseases 31 7.9 (2.6) 3137(955) 22 7.7 (3.5) 3010 (1251)
Neurology 21 7.3 (2.3) 2700 (1002) 13 10.8 (3.5) 4057 (1572)
Orthopaedic 42 9.0 (1.5) 3739 (532) 22 4.4 (0.8) 2362 (317)
Urology 26 9.5 (1.0) 3854 (375) 8 11.3 (1.6) 4336 (703)
Type of AE       
Diagnostics 29 12.0 (2.8) 4812 (1250) 24 13.4 (3.2) 5433 (1444)
Surgical 249 10.3 (0.8) 5764 (695) 84 10.8 (1.7) 6735 (1854)
Intervention (non surgical) 81 6.0 (0.8) 2414 (337) 26 9.6 (1.9) 3454 (706)
Medication 66 8.1 (1.4) 3105 (579) 21 9.2 (2.9) 3992 (1309)
Other clinical activities 16 5.1 (1.6) 2438 (757) 13 6.0 (1.8) 2832 (856)
Discharge 6 18.5 (6.9) 6856 (2477) 6 18.5 (6.9) 6856 (2478)
Other 11 5.2 (2.0) 2828 (1545) 9 2.9 (1.6) 2131 (1740)
  1. * Figures were weighted for oversampling of deceased patients and of patients admitted to a university hospital.
  2. ** Unable to determine in 9 and 3 patients in respectively all AEs and preventable AEs
  3. *** Largest ICD-9-DE groups only