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Table 3 Characteristics and outcomes of individuals classified as No metabolic syndrome, At-risk-for metabolic syndrome, and with Metabolic syndrome using individuals with all five criteria measured*

From: Identifying primary care patients at risk for future diabetes and cardiovascular disease using electronic health records

  No metabolic syndrome* At-risk-for metabolic syndrome* Metabolic syndrome*  
  0 criteria 1-2 criteria 3 or more  
Baseline characteristics  
N = 30,461 9,529 16,674 4,258  
Age, years (SD) 45 (14) 51 (15) 52 (14)  
Women, % 65.8% 59.9% 51.2%  
Race (% White) 76.9% 76.0% 78.1%  
Insurance (% Commercial) 80.2% 66.4% 61.2%  
Income, $US (SD) $80,859 ($60,623) $69,846 ($54,333) $61,086 ($45,290)  
Three-year outcomes p-value †
Inpatient admissions, mean number per patient (SD) 0.10 (0.52) 0.23 (1.07) 0.36 (1.25) <.0001
Length of stay, mean days (SD) § 4 (3) 6 (3) 6 (3) <.0001
Outpatient clinic visits, mean number per patient (SD) § 4.3 (2.2) 7.2 (2.5) 11.0 (2.4) <.0001
Total cost, US dollars
(SD) §
$3,804 ($4) $4,665 ($4) $5,271 ($4) <.0001
Incidence of diabetes mellitus 1.1% 3.7% 11.0% <.0001
Incidence of CHD 2.1% 4.7% 6.5% <.0001
  1. *patients categorized after excluding patients with diabetes and/or CHD, having all five criteria measured (formal or surrogate); prevalence of each risk factor were 40.8% for obesity, 35.6% for blood pressure, 25.1% for HDL, 18.6% for triglycerides, and 6.7% for glycemia.
  2. † p-values for trend in age-sex-adjusted regression analysis in all three categories of metabolic syndrome status
  3. §log-transformed for analysis and then back-transformed for display