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Table 4 Outcome measures of the process evaluation

From: Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial

Variable Measurement
Population reached  
Target population and proportion of the intended target population TI-Rp, SQt
General characteristics of the participants and trainers Qt
Number of participants that refused, dropped out or completed the training Qt
Reasons for withdrawal Qt
Performance according to protocol  
Format, preparation time and duration of the session Qt
Per session component: extent to which carried out, duration and active participation by the participant* Qt
Extent to which the trainer achieved to:  
   - related to identification cane: provide information, raise the participant's awareness of its advantages, demonstrate the use and have the participant experience the use of the cane* Qt
   - have the participant phrase his/her important activities related to mobility and how to perform activities safely and independently* Qt
   - have the participant setting goals regarding an action plan* Qt
   - teach orientation skills* and teach mobility skills* Qt
Exposure and engagement  
Total number of sessions Qt
Use of materials* TIp, Qt
Overall opinion of the trainer/participant regarding the participant's engagement in:  
   - the training TIp, Qt
   - formulating of an action plan and carrying out an action plan* Qt
Exposure and adherence to homework TIp
Extent to which the participant complied with contracts* Qt
Quality of actions plans formulated by the participants* Qt
Opinion on the training  
Overall opinion on the training TIp, Qt
Opinion regarding:  
   - number, duration and course of the sessions TIp, Qt
   - homework and comprehensibility of the complete training TIp
   - number of extra training sessions needed TIp, Qt
   - whether the O&M-training met the participant's need for mobility support TIp, Qt
Usefulness regarding:  
   - discussing mobility problems, receiving information on different kinds of canes and practicing with the identification cane TIp
   - formulating an action plan and carrying out an action plan* TIp
   - contracting with respect to formulating and carrying out action plans* Tip
Burden experienced by the participant TIp
Recommendation of the training to others TIp
Overall opinion on the trainer TIp, Qt
Perceived benefit or achievement  
Benefit regarding:  
   - the O&M-training TIp
   - advantages of an identification cane and self-confidence Qt
   - realistic action planning* Qt
Use of identification cane in daily life Qt
Achievement regarding:  
   - identification cane: knowledge, aware of advantages and having experienced the cane TIp
   - able to think how to perform an activity safely and independently TIp
   - self-confidence and performance of an activity safely and independently TIp
   - formulating a realistic action plan* and carrying out an action plan* TIp
   - skills for orientation and skills for mobility TIp
   - safe and independent participation outdoors TIp, Qt
   - optimal use of personal capabilities TIp, Qt
   - starting new activities and/or taking up former activities that were avoided due to the mobility problems TIp, Qt
Experienced barriers and potential solutions  
Deviations of each session component* Qt
Main goal of contact - time spent on issues not related to O&M-training Qt
Strong and weak aspects of the O&M-training TIp, Qt
Hampering and stimulating factors for use of the standardised O&M-training* Qt
Matters for improvement - materials and standardised O&M-training* Qt
  1. * Assessed in the intervention group only.
  2. O&M-training = orientation and mobility training; TI-Rp = telephone interview prior to randomisation with the participant (as part of the screening process); SQt = starting questionnaire, i.e. questionnaire filled in by the trainer before training his/her first participant of the study; Qt = questionnaire filled in by the mobility trainer per participant; TIp = interview by telephone with the participant.