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Table 3 Outcome measures of the effect evaluation

From: Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial

Variable No. of items Range*
Primary outcome measures   
ADL self care (ADL subscale of the GARS) [40] 11 11 to 44
Distance activities and mobility (subscale of the VFQ) [41, 42] 8 8 to 40
Secondary outcome measures   
Activities index (FAI) [43, 44] 15 15 to 60
Social support interactions SSL12-I [45] 12 12 to 48
Feelings of loneliness [46] 1 1 to 6
Health-related quality of life (EQ5D) [47] 5 5 to 15
Mental health and dependency (subscale of the VFQ) [41, 42] 6 6 to 30
Feelings of anxiety (HADS-A) [44, 48] 7 0 to 21
Symptoms of depression (HADS-D) [44, 48] 7 0 to 21
Concerns about falling (FES-I) [49, 50] 16 16 to 64
Fear of falling [46] 1 1 to 5
Activity avoidance due to fear of falling [46] 1 1 to 5
Number of indoor falls in the previous 6 months [46] 1 1 to 6
Number of outdoor falls in the previous 6 months [46] 1 1 to 6
  1. * The bold scores indicate the most favourable scores.
  2. At FU1 and FU2 the number of falls between the previous and the current assessment is measured.
  3. ADL = activities of daily life; GARS = Groningen Activity Restriction Scale; VFQ = Visual Functioning Questionnaire; EQ5D = EuroQol 5 Dimensions; HADS-A = anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HADS-D = depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; FAI = Frenchay Activities Index; FES-I = falls efficacy scale international.